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Biological monitoring of carbon disulphide and phthalate exposure in the contemporary rubber industry

Vermeulen, R; Jönsson, Bo A LU ; Lindh, Christian LU and Kromhout, H (2005) In International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 78(8). p.663-669
Abstract
Objectives: We studied the range in urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxyl acid (TTCA), a metabolite of CS, and phthalic acid (PA), a common metabolite of phthalates, across factories and departments in the contemporary rubber manufacturing industry. Methods: Spot urine samples from 101 rubber workers employed in nine different factories were collected on Sunday and during the workweek on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday at similar to 4 pm. In total, 386 urine samples were successfully analyzed. Results: Levels of both biomarkers increased significantly by a factor 2 (paired t-test P-value < 0.05) during the working week as compared to the Sunday biomarker levels with absolute increases of approximately 70 mu g/l and 5 mu... (More)
Objectives: We studied the range in urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxyl acid (TTCA), a metabolite of CS, and phthalic acid (PA), a common metabolite of phthalates, across factories and departments in the contemporary rubber manufacturing industry. Methods: Spot urine samples from 101 rubber workers employed in nine different factories were collected on Sunday and during the workweek on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday at similar to 4 pm. In total, 386 urine samples were successfully analyzed. Results: Levels of both biomarkers increased significantly by a factor 2 (paired t-test P-value < 0.05) during the working week as compared to the Sunday biomarker levels with absolute increases of approximately 70 mu g/l and 5 mu mol/mol creatinine for PA and TTCA, respectively. Levels in both biomarkers did not differ markedly between working days. Increases seemed to be restricted to specific factories and/or departments (e.g. molding and curing). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that rubber workers in the contemporary rubber industry are exposed to phthalates and low levels Of CS2 (similar to 0.05 ppm) as measured by PA and TTCA, respectively. Exposures to both compounds are largely driven by specific circumstances in Factories. Therefore, when estimating exposures to phthalates and CS2 detailed information should be collected on the type and amount of phthalate containing ester plasticizers, dithlocarbamates and thiurams used. Preferably, personal exposure data should be collected. In this case, biological monitoring seems a reasonable approach. However, in the case of PA attention should be given to individual background levels as this could lead to a substantial overestimation of the Occupational contribution to total phthalate exposure. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
biomonitoring, phthalates, rubber industry, carbon disulphide
in
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
volume
78
issue
8
pages
663 - 669
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000232779200008
  • pmid:16041606
  • scopus:27844477253
ISSN
1432-1246
DOI
10.1007/s00420-005-0017-z
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
398d885c-2354-4ad1-99dc-5b31d9d8488b (old id 216555)
date added to LUP
2007-08-07 09:21:36
date last changed
2017-01-01 07:14:42
@article{398d885c-2354-4ad1-99dc-5b31d9d8488b,
  abstract     = {Objectives: We studied the range in urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxyl acid (TTCA), a metabolite of CS, and phthalic acid (PA), a common metabolite of phthalates, across factories and departments in the contemporary rubber manufacturing industry. Methods: Spot urine samples from 101 rubber workers employed in nine different factories were collected on Sunday and during the workweek on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday at similar to 4 pm. In total, 386 urine samples were successfully analyzed. Results: Levels of both biomarkers increased significantly by a factor 2 (paired t-test P-value &lt; 0.05) during the working week as compared to the Sunday biomarker levels with absolute increases of approximately 70 mu g/l and 5 mu mol/mol creatinine for PA and TTCA, respectively. Levels in both biomarkers did not differ markedly between working days. Increases seemed to be restricted to specific factories and/or departments (e.g. molding and curing). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that rubber workers in the contemporary rubber industry are exposed to phthalates and low levels Of CS2 (similar to 0.05 ppm) as measured by PA and TTCA, respectively. Exposures to both compounds are largely driven by specific circumstances in Factories. Therefore, when estimating exposures to phthalates and CS2 detailed information should be collected on the type and amount of phthalate containing ester plasticizers, dithlocarbamates and thiurams used. Preferably, personal exposure data should be collected. In this case, biological monitoring seems a reasonable approach. However, in the case of PA attention should be given to individual background levels as this could lead to a substantial overestimation of the Occupational contribution to total phthalate exposure.},
  author       = {Vermeulen, R and Jönsson, Bo A and Lindh, Christian and Kromhout, H},
  issn         = {1432-1246},
  keyword      = {biomonitoring,phthalates,rubber industry,carbon disulphide},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {663--669},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health},
  title        = {Biological monitoring of carbon disulphide and phthalate exposure in the contemporary rubber industry},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-005-0017-z},
  volume       = {78},
  year         = {2005},
}