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Effect of vineyard-scale climate variability on Pinot noir phenolic composition

Nicholas, Kimberly LU ; Matthews, Mark A.; Lobell, David B.; Willits, Neil H. and Field, Christopher B. (2011) In Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151(12). p.1556-1567
Abstract
The sensitivity of agricultural crops to climate change is a major area for climate impact studies. The relationship between climate and three key phenolic compounds in grape skins important to premium wine quality (anthocyanins, tannins, and total phenolics) has not been well-studied. Here we conducted a three-year field study to collect and analyze berry samples from Pinot noir vineyards in the Carneros and Sonoma Valley American Viticultural Areas of California's North Coast wine country, and correlate phenolic measurements with climate statistics derived from hourly temperature measures at each vineyard site. We used several statistical approaches to identify key phenologically-based periods influencing phenolic concentration at... (More)
The sensitivity of agricultural crops to climate change is a major area for climate impact studies. The relationship between climate and three key phenolic compounds in grape skins important to premium wine quality (anthocyanins, tannins, and total phenolics) has not been well-studied. Here we conducted a three-year field study to collect and analyze berry samples from Pinot noir vineyards in the Carneros and Sonoma Valley American Viticultural Areas of California's North Coast wine country, and correlate phenolic measurements with climate statistics derived from hourly temperature measures at each vineyard site. We used several statistical approaches to identify key phenologically-based periods influencing phenolic concentration at maturity, including classification and regression trees, factor screening, principal component analysis, and pairwise correlations. The results from these statistical models showed that cool conditions following harvest the year before maturity, warm temperatures from budburst to bloom, and cool temperatures from bloom to veraison (the onset of ripening) were positively correlated with concentrations of all three classes of phenolics, although not all trends were statistically significant. Anthocyanins were positively and significantly correlated with temperatures between 16 and 22 degrees C from veraison to harvest. Tannins were significantly increased by warm nights preceding budburst and warm days from budburst to bloom. We measured relatively high levels of light interception (35% of incident photosynthetically active radiation), and we found that increased light interception was significantly correlated with lower levels of all three classes of phenolic compounds in this study. For the Pinot noir sites in this study, warm temperatures from budburst to bloom appear to increase phenolic concentrations, which is likely beneficial for wine quality. However, warmer periods during the preceding fall and summer during ripening appear to offset these effects. Given projections for greater summer warming in California with climate change, the overall impact of climate change on winegrowing is likely to be negative. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Climate change, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Climate sensitivity, Anthocyanins, Phenology, Temperature
in
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
volume
151
issue
12
pages
1556 - 1567
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000297277200007
  • scopus:80054889008
ISSN
1873-2240
DOI
10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.06.010
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
2b1baa6d-1515-439d-86e5-9ace4773ce5d (old id 2272664)
date added to LUP
2011-12-29 12:02:56
date last changed
2017-10-01 04:25:13
@article{2b1baa6d-1515-439d-86e5-9ace4773ce5d,
  abstract     = {The sensitivity of agricultural crops to climate change is a major area for climate impact studies. The relationship between climate and three key phenolic compounds in grape skins important to premium wine quality (anthocyanins, tannins, and total phenolics) has not been well-studied. Here we conducted a three-year field study to collect and analyze berry samples from Pinot noir vineyards in the Carneros and Sonoma Valley American Viticultural Areas of California's North Coast wine country, and correlate phenolic measurements with climate statistics derived from hourly temperature measures at each vineyard site. We used several statistical approaches to identify key phenologically-based periods influencing phenolic concentration at maturity, including classification and regression trees, factor screening, principal component analysis, and pairwise correlations. The results from these statistical models showed that cool conditions following harvest the year before maturity, warm temperatures from budburst to bloom, and cool temperatures from bloom to veraison (the onset of ripening) were positively correlated with concentrations of all three classes of phenolics, although not all trends were statistically significant. Anthocyanins were positively and significantly correlated with temperatures between 16 and 22 degrees C from veraison to harvest. Tannins were significantly increased by warm nights preceding budburst and warm days from budburst to bloom. We measured relatively high levels of light interception (35% of incident photosynthetically active radiation), and we found that increased light interception was significantly correlated with lower levels of all three classes of phenolic compounds in this study. For the Pinot noir sites in this study, warm temperatures from budburst to bloom appear to increase phenolic concentrations, which is likely beneficial for wine quality. However, warmer periods during the preceding fall and summer during ripening appear to offset these effects. Given projections for greater summer warming in California with climate change, the overall impact of climate change on winegrowing is likely to be negative. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Nicholas, Kimberly and Matthews, Mark A. and Lobell, David B. and Willits, Neil H. and Field, Christopher B.},
  issn         = {1873-2240},
  keyword      = {Climate change,Vitis vinifera,Wine,Climate sensitivity,Anthocyanins,Phenology,Temperature},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {1556--1567},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Agricultural and Forest Meteorology},
  title        = {Effect of vineyard-scale climate variability on Pinot noir phenolic composition},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.06.010},
  volume       = {151},
  year         = {2011},
}