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Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco

Hruba, Frantiska; Strömberg, Ulf LU ; Cerna, Milena; Chen, Chunying; Harari, Florencia; Harari, Raul; Horvat, Milena; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Kos, Andreja and Krskova, Andrea, et al. (2012) In Environment International 41. p.29-34
Abstract
Children's blood-lead concentration (B-Pb) is well studied, but little is known about cadmium (B-Cd) and mercury (B-Hg), in particular for central Europe. Such information is necessary for risk assessment and management. Therefore, we here describe and compare B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg in children in six European, and three non-European cities, and identify determinants of these exposures. About 50 school children (7-14 years) from each city were recruited (totally 433) in 2007-2008. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. A blood sample was analyzed: only two laboratories with strict quality control were used. The European cities showed only minor differences for B-Cd (geometric means 0.11-0.17 mu g/L) and B-Pb (14-20 mu g/L), but... (More)
Children's blood-lead concentration (B-Pb) is well studied, but little is known about cadmium (B-Cd) and mercury (B-Hg), in particular for central Europe. Such information is necessary for risk assessment and management. Therefore, we here describe and compare B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg in children in six European, and three non-European cities, and identify determinants of these exposures. About 50 school children (7-14 years) from each city were recruited (totally 433) in 2007-2008. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. A blood sample was analyzed: only two laboratories with strict quality control were used. The European cities showed only minor differences for B-Cd (geometric means 0.11-0.17 mu g/L) and B-Pb (14-20 mu g/L), but larger for B-Hg (0.12-0.94 mu g/L). Corresponding means for the non-European countries were 0.21-0.26, 32-71, and 0.3-3.2 mu g/L, respectively. For B-Cd in European samples, traffic intensity close to home was a statistically significant determinant, for B-Hg fish consumption and amalgam fillings, and for B-Pb sex (boys higher). This study shows that European city children's B-Cd and B-Pb vary only little between countries; B-Hg differs considerably, due to varying tooth restoration practices and fish intake. Traffic intensity seemed to be a determinant for B-Cd. The metal concentrations were low from a risk perspective but the chosen non-European cities showed higher concentrations than the cities in Europe. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (Less)
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keywords
Biomonitoring, Exposure, Children, Lead, Mercury, Cadmium
in
Environment International
volume
41
pages
29 - 34
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000301684700004
  • scopus:84855770520
ISSN
1873-6750
DOI
10.1016/j.envint.2011.12.001
language
English
LU publication?
yes
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5f0d8907-8334-4fd1-b70b-87c035f5f658 (old id 2515356)
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2012-05-07 15:40:28
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@article{5f0d8907-8334-4fd1-b70b-87c035f5f658,
  abstract     = {Children's blood-lead concentration (B-Pb) is well studied, but little is known about cadmium (B-Cd) and mercury (B-Hg), in particular for central Europe. Such information is necessary for risk assessment and management. Therefore, we here describe and compare B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg in children in six European, and three non-European cities, and identify determinants of these exposures. About 50 school children (7-14 years) from each city were recruited (totally 433) in 2007-2008. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. A blood sample was analyzed: only two laboratories with strict quality control were used. The European cities showed only minor differences for B-Cd (geometric means 0.11-0.17 mu g/L) and B-Pb (14-20 mu g/L), but larger for B-Hg (0.12-0.94 mu g/L). Corresponding means for the non-European countries were 0.21-0.26, 32-71, and 0.3-3.2 mu g/L, respectively. For B-Cd in European samples, traffic intensity close to home was a statistically significant determinant, for B-Hg fish consumption and amalgam fillings, and for B-Pb sex (boys higher). This study shows that European city children's B-Cd and B-Pb vary only little between countries; B-Hg differs considerably, due to varying tooth restoration practices and fish intake. Traffic intensity seemed to be a determinant for B-Cd. The metal concentrations were low from a risk perspective but the chosen non-European cities showed higher concentrations than the cities in Europe. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Hruba, Frantiska and Strömberg, Ulf and Cerna, Milena and Chen, Chunying and Harari, Florencia and Harari, Raul and Horvat, Milena and Koppova, Kvetoslava and Kos, Andreja and Krskova, Andrea and Krsnik, Mladen and Laamech, Jawhar and Li, Yu-Feng and Löfmark, Lina and Lundh, Thomas and Lundstrom, Nils-Goran and Lyoussi, Badiaa and Mazej, Darja and Osredkar, Josko and Pawlas, Krystyna and Pawlas, Natalia and Prokopowicz, Adam and Rentschler, Gerda and Spevackova, Vera and Spiric, Zdravko and Tratnik, Janja and Skerfving, Staffan and Bergdahl, Ingvar A.},
  issn         = {1873-6750},
  keyword      = {Biomonitoring,Exposure,Children,Lead,Mercury,Cadmium},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {29--34},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Environment International},
  title        = {Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011.12.001},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2012},
}