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Phthalates and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid in Human Amniotic Fluid: Temporal Trends and Timing of Amniocentesis in Pregnancy

Jensen, Morten Sondergaard; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Toft, Gunnar; Hougaard, David M.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Cohen, Arieh; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Ivell, Richard; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder and Lindh, Christian LU , et al. (2012) In Environmental Health Perspectives 120(6). p.897-903
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Measures of prenatal environmental exposures are important, and amniotic fluid levels may directly reflect fetal exposures during hypothesized windows of vulnerability. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to detect various phthalate metabolites and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in human amniotic fluid, to study temporal exposure trends, and to estimate potential associations with gestational week of amniocentesis and maternal age and parity at amniocentesis. METHODS: We studied 300 randomly selected second-trimester amniotic fluid samples from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank covering 1980 through 1996. We used only samples from male offspring pregnancies. We assayed the environmental pollutants by liquid chromatography/triple... (More)
BACKGROUND: Measures of prenatal environmental exposures are important, and amniotic fluid levels may directly reflect fetal exposures during hypothesized windows of vulnerability. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to detect various phthalate metabolites and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in human amniotic fluid, to study temporal exposure trends, and to estimate potential associations with gestational week of amniocentesis and maternal age and parity at amniocentesis. METHODS: We studied 300 randomly selected second-trimester amniotic fluid samples from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank covering 1980 through 1996. We used only samples from male offspring pregnancies. We assayed the environmental pollutants by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and analyzed data using generalized linear regression models. RESULTS: We detected the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP) at a median concentration of 0.27 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR): 0.20-0.37 ng/mL], the diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolite mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (7cx-MMeHP) at 0.07 ng/mL (IQR: 0.05-0.11 ng/mL), and PFOS at 1.1 ng/mL (IQR: 0.66-1.60 ng/mL). An increase of 1 calendar year was associated with 3.5% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.8%, -2.1%] 5cx-MEPP levels and with 7.1% higher (95% CI: 5.3%, 9.0%) 7cx-MMeHP levels. For each later gestational week of amniocentesis, 5cx-MEPP was 9.9% higher (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.2%), 7cx-MMeHP was 8.6% higher (95: CI: 2.7%, 14.9%), and PFOS was 9.4% higher (95: CI: 3.3%, 15.9%). We observed no associations with maternal age or parity. CONCLUSIONS: Measured metabolite levels appeared to parallel decreasing DEHP exposure and increasing DiNP exposure during the study period. The environmental pollutant levels were positively associated with later gestational age at amniocentesis during pregnancy weeks 12-22. (Less)
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publication status
published
subject
keywords
amniocentesis, amniotic fluid, biobank, biomonitoring, perfluorinated, compounds, phthalates, pregnancy, temporal trend
in
Environmental Health Perspectives
volume
120
issue
6
pages
897 - 903
publisher
National Institute of Environmental Health Science
external identifiers
  • wos:000304765700032
  • scopus:84862012958
ISSN
1552-9924
DOI
10.1289/ehp.1104522
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
cfae4499-f1bc-4651-9c47-27eba4da4920 (old id 2892276)
date added to LUP
2012-08-01 08:53:15
date last changed
2017-09-24 04:14:27
@article{cfae4499-f1bc-4651-9c47-27eba4da4920,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: Measures of prenatal environmental exposures are important, and amniotic fluid levels may directly reflect fetal exposures during hypothesized windows of vulnerability. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to detect various phthalate metabolites and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in human amniotic fluid, to study temporal exposure trends, and to estimate potential associations with gestational week of amniocentesis and maternal age and parity at amniocentesis. METHODS: We studied 300 randomly selected second-trimester amniotic fluid samples from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank covering 1980 through 1996. We used only samples from male offspring pregnancies. We assayed the environmental pollutants by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and analyzed data using generalized linear regression models. RESULTS: We detected the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP) at a median concentration of 0.27 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR): 0.20-0.37 ng/mL], the diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolite mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (7cx-MMeHP) at 0.07 ng/mL (IQR: 0.05-0.11 ng/mL), and PFOS at 1.1 ng/mL (IQR: 0.66-1.60 ng/mL). An increase of 1 calendar year was associated with 3.5% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.8%, -2.1%] 5cx-MEPP levels and with 7.1% higher (95% CI: 5.3%, 9.0%) 7cx-MMeHP levels. For each later gestational week of amniocentesis, 5cx-MEPP was 9.9% higher (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.2%), 7cx-MMeHP was 8.6% higher (95: CI: 2.7%, 14.9%), and PFOS was 9.4% higher (95: CI: 3.3%, 15.9%). We observed no associations with maternal age or parity. CONCLUSIONS: Measured metabolite levels appeared to parallel decreasing DEHP exposure and increasing DiNP exposure during the study period. The environmental pollutant levels were positively associated with later gestational age at amniocentesis during pregnancy weeks 12-22.},
  author       = {Jensen, Morten Sondergaard and Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent and Toft, Gunnar and Hougaard, David M. and Bonde, Jens Peter and Cohen, Arieh and Thulstrup, Ane Marie and Ivell, Richard and Anand-Ivell, Ravinder and Lindh, Christian and Jönsson, Bo A},
  issn         = {1552-9924},
  keyword      = {amniocentesis,amniotic fluid,biobank,biomonitoring,perfluorinated,compounds,phthalates,pregnancy,temporal trend},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {897--903},
  publisher    = {National Institute of Environmental Health Science},
  series       = {Environmental Health Perspectives},
  title        = {Phthalates and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid in Human Amniotic Fluid: Temporal Trends and Timing of Amniocentesis in Pregnancy},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104522},
  volume       = {120},
  year         = {2012},
}