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Direct observation of the molten state of nanometer-sized particles with an atomic force microscope: A feasibility study

Ismail, S; Deppert, Knut LU ; Junno, T; Kortegaard, Carl LU ; Larne, H; Magnusson, MH; Thelander, Claes LU and Samuelson, Lars LU (2002) In Journal of Nanoparticle Research 4(4). p.351-356
Abstract
An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to directly examine the physical state of nanometer-sized particles. The critical diameter of indium particles, where evidence of melting at room temperature was observed, was 7.8 +/- 1.2 nm. This conclusion is based on a method relying on the manipulation of particles in ambient air and at constant temperature. This method involves a simple set-up that permits a combination of both manipulation and imaging of individual particles. To determine whether a particle is molten, three criteria are used: the merging of particles to form bigger spherical particles, a tip-induced shape change, and the formation of nanofibers. All three criteria have been checked using other particle materials. An attempt... (More)
An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to directly examine the physical state of nanometer-sized particles. The critical diameter of indium particles, where evidence of melting at room temperature was observed, was 7.8 +/- 1.2 nm. This conclusion is based on a method relying on the manipulation of particles in ambient air and at constant temperature. This method involves a simple set-up that permits a combination of both manipulation and imaging of individual particles. To determine whether a particle is molten, three criteria are used: the merging of particles to form bigger spherical particles, a tip-induced shape change, and the formation of nanofibers. All three criteria have been checked using other particle materials. An attempt at 56degreesC revealed oxidation of the indium particles as the major problem for melting investigation. Manipulations under high-purity nitrogen atmosphere support the validity of the findings. The use of the AFM to determine whether a nanoparticle is molten is, however, complicated by the oxidation issue. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
atomic force microscope, melting point, nanoparticles
in
Journal of Nanoparticle Research
volume
4
issue
4
pages
351 - 356
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000179311900008
  • scopus:0036439088
ISSN
1572-896X
DOI
10.1023/A:1021109630111
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e1aa291f-723f-4d41-90dc-e0e50b5d0e3f (old id 323421)
date added to LUP
2007-10-23 10:59:24
date last changed
2017-01-01 05:03:33
@article{e1aa291f-723f-4d41-90dc-e0e50b5d0e3f,
  abstract     = {An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to directly examine the physical state of nanometer-sized particles. The critical diameter of indium particles, where evidence of melting at room temperature was observed, was 7.8 +/- 1.2 nm. This conclusion is based on a method relying on the manipulation of particles in ambient air and at constant temperature. This method involves a simple set-up that permits a combination of both manipulation and imaging of individual particles. To determine whether a particle is molten, three criteria are used: the merging of particles to form bigger spherical particles, a tip-induced shape change, and the formation of nanofibers. All three criteria have been checked using other particle materials. An attempt at 56degreesC revealed oxidation of the indium particles as the major problem for melting investigation. Manipulations under high-purity nitrogen atmosphere support the validity of the findings. The use of the AFM to determine whether a nanoparticle is molten is, however, complicated by the oxidation issue.},
  author       = {Ismail, S and Deppert, Knut and Junno, T and Kortegaard, Carl and Larne, H and Magnusson, MH and Thelander, Claes and Samuelson, Lars},
  issn         = {1572-896X},
  keyword      = {atomic force microscope,melting point,nanoparticles},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {351--356},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Journal of Nanoparticle Research},
  title        = {Direct observation of the molten state of nanometer-sized particles with an atomic force microscope: A feasibility study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021109630111},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2002},
}