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The Flow Rate of People during Train Evacuation in Rail Tunnels: Effects of Different Train Exit Configurations

Fridolf, Karl LU ; Nilsson, Daniel LU and Frantzich, Håkan LU (2014) In Safety Science 62. p.515-529
Abstract
An exploratory study of a train evacuation inside a tunnel was performed in order to study the effects of different train exit configurations on the flow rate of people through the exit. A total of 84 participants in the ages 18–40 years took part in the experiment, which was carried out on two separate days and involved 18 evacuation scenarios. The statistical analysis of the experiment demonstrated that the aver- age flow rate capacity of the train exit was .3 persons per second and meter (p/s m) door width, including all scenarios. Four variables related to the train exit configuration were identified to significantly affect the flow rate of people: (1) a reduction of the train exit height increased the flow rate of people with on... (More)
An exploratory study of a train evacuation inside a tunnel was performed in order to study the effects of different train exit configurations on the flow rate of people through the exit. A total of 84 participants in the ages 18–40 years took part in the experiment, which was carried out on two separate days and involved 18 evacuation scenarios. The statistical analysis of the experiment demonstrated that the aver- age flow rate capacity of the train exit was .3 persons per second and meter (p/s m) door width, including all scenarios. Four variables related to the train exit configuration were identified to significantly affect the flow rate of people: (1) a reduction of the train exit height increased the flow rate of people with on average .026 p/s m; (2) a change of tunnel floor material from concrete to macadam increased the flow rate of people with on average .015 p/s m; (3) an emergency ladder present in the train exit reduced the flow rate of people with on average .064 p/s m; and (4) a complete failure of the lighting inside the train reduced the flow rate of people with on average .029 p/s m. In addition, qualitative observations revealed a deferential behaviour among the participants in the train, caused by the people outside the train. It is therefore believed that the population density outside the train will significantly determine the flow rate capacity of the train exit during an evacuation. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Evacuation experiment, Flow rate of people, Train, Tunnel, Underground rail transportation system
in
Safety Science
volume
62
pages
515 - 529
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000329558900054
  • scopus:84887598472
ISSN
0925-7535
DOI
10.1016/j.ssci.2013.10.008
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
8edef936-f8fa-4648-8a32-06d5b0deb1f7 (old id 3634250)
alternative location
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925753513002336
date added to LUP
2013-04-19 09:37:00
date last changed
2017-08-13 03:56:16
@article{8edef936-f8fa-4648-8a32-06d5b0deb1f7,
  abstract     = {An exploratory study of a train evacuation inside a tunnel was performed in order to study the effects of different train exit configurations on the flow rate of people through the exit. A total of 84 participants in the ages 18–40 years took part in the experiment, which was carried out on two separate days and involved 18 evacuation scenarios. The statistical analysis of the experiment demonstrated that the aver- age flow rate capacity of the train exit was .3 persons per second and meter (p/s m) door width, including all scenarios. Four variables related to the train exit configuration were identified to significantly affect the flow rate of people: (1) a reduction of the train exit height increased the flow rate of people with on average .026 p/s m; (2) a change of tunnel floor material from concrete to macadam increased the flow rate of people with on average .015 p/s m; (3) an emergency ladder present in the train exit reduced the flow rate of people with on average .064 p/s m; and (4) a complete failure of the lighting inside the train reduced the flow rate of people with on average .029 p/s m. In addition, qualitative observations revealed a deferential behaviour among the participants in the train, caused by the people outside the train. It is therefore believed that the population density outside the train will significantly determine the flow rate capacity of the train exit during an evacuation.},
  author       = {Fridolf, Karl and Nilsson, Daniel and Frantzich, Håkan},
  issn         = {0925-7535},
  keyword      = {Evacuation experiment,Flow rate of people,Train,Tunnel,Underground rail transportation system},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {515--529},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Safety Science},
  title        = {The Flow Rate of People during Train Evacuation in Rail Tunnels: Effects of Different Train Exit Configurations},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2013.10.008},
  volume       = {62},
  year         = {2014},
}