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Lactobacillus in semi-hard cheese and their use as adjunct cultures

Antonsson, Martin LU (2001)
Abstract
The microflora of Herrgård cheese produced at three dairies was compared after three and six months maturation. The microflora of cheeses from two of the dairies was dominated by a spontaneous microflora of <i>Lactobacillus</i> after three months of ripening, while starter bacteria still dominated in cheese from the third dairy after six months. Isolates were typed by the PCR-based method Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The <i>Lactobacillus</i> flora in cheese from different dairies consisted mainly of diverse RAPD-types, but of the 24 RAPD-types found, three were isolated from cheese made at two different dairies and two other RAPD-types were isolated from cheese from all three dairies. The RAPD-typing... (More)
The microflora of Herrgård cheese produced at three dairies was compared after three and six months maturation. The microflora of cheeses from two of the dairies was dominated by a spontaneous microflora of <i>Lactobacillus</i> after three months of ripening, while starter bacteria still dominated in cheese from the third dairy after six months. Isolates were typed by the PCR-based method Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The <i>Lactobacillus</i> flora in cheese from different dairies consisted mainly of diverse RAPD-types, but of the 24 RAPD-types found, three were isolated from cheese made at two different dairies and two other RAPD-types were isolated from cheese from all three dairies. The RAPD-typing indicated a succession between different types of Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria (NSLAB) in cheese from one of the dairies.



The NSLAB in Danbo cheese was studied, with special emphasis on <i>Lactobacillus</i>, using six ripened cheeses of different ages and of different brands. The microflora in five cheeses was dominated by <i>Lactobacillus</i>, but the sixth cheese contained no <i>Lactobacillus</i>. Ten RAPD-types were found and 70 % of the isolates were of RAPD-types found in more than one cheese. The different RAPD-types of NSLAB were identified to species level by Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE). Most NSLAB isolates were identified as <i>Lactobacillus paracasei</i> (76 %), but <i>Lactobacillus plantarum</i>, <i>Lactobacillus curvatus</i> and <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> were also found.



37 <i>Lactobacillus casei/paracasei</i> and <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> strains of mostly human or cheese origin were classified by Restriction Endonuclease Analysis (REA) of the total chromosomal DNA and TTGE of PCR amplified 16s rDNA fragments. REA-typing singled out three major clusters, two composed of <i>Lactobacillus paracasei</i> and one of <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> strains. The groups obtained by TTGE corresponded generally with the REA-clusters. All <i>Lactobacillus paracasei</i> strains had one amplified 16s rDNA fragment incommon, but were separated into five subgroups due to the presence of one or two additional fragments amplified for some strains. The observed heterogeniety in the 16s rDNA of about half of the tested <i>Lactobacillus paracasei</i> strains might provide an explanation of the diversity within this species.



A cheese model system, reproducible and comparable to cheese manufactured in full-scale in terms of moisture, salt content, pH and microbial ecology, was developed.



<i>Lactobacillus</i> strains originating from cheese or human mucosa were tested as adjunct cultures in the cheese model system. The test-strains were mainly <i>Lactobacillus paracasei</i> and <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> strains. Adjuncts of <i>Lactobacillus paracasei</i> were re-isolated more frequently than adjuncts of <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i>, but no correlation was found between re-isolation and the origin of the adjunct. The flavour development was generally strain dependent, but adjuncts of <i>Lactobacillus paracasei</i> were slightly more common in improving cheese flavour. Model cheese with a microflora dominated by an RAPD-type of <i>Lactobacillus plantarum</i> was associated with off-flavour and serine degradation.



Two human-derived <i>Lactobacillus paracasei</i> strains were used as adjunct cultures in pilot scale cheese production. These strains improved cheese flavour and survived passage through the human gastro-intestinal tract when delivered in semi-hard cheese. The NSLAB did not share this characteristic. (Less)
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author
opponent
  • Dr Beresford, Tom, Dairy Products Research Centre, Teagasc Moorepark, Fermoy, Co., Cork, Ireland
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Livsmedelsteknik, Food and drink technology, Adjunct culture, NSLAB, Non-starter Lactic acid bacteria, Cheese ripening, Model cheese, Lactobacillus paracasei, Cheese, Microbiology, bacteriology, virology, mycology, Mikrobiologi, bakteriologi, virologi, mykologi
pages
85 pages
publisher
Department of Food Technology, Lund University
defense location
K:A, Chemical Center, Getingevägen 60, Lund
defense date
2001-06-15 13:15
ISBN
91-7874-139-4
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
b99b3d58-ed62-4485-a97c-e9db625d9548 (old id 41705)
date added to LUP
2007-06-20 11:23:48
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:06
@phdthesis{b99b3d58-ed62-4485-a97c-e9db625d9548,
  abstract     = {The microflora of Herrgård cheese produced at three dairies was compared after three and six months maturation. The microflora of cheeses from two of the dairies was dominated by a spontaneous microflora of &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus&lt;/i&gt; after three months of ripening, while starter bacteria still dominated in cheese from the third dairy after six months. Isolates were typed by the PCR-based method Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus&lt;/i&gt; flora in cheese from different dairies consisted mainly of diverse RAPD-types, but of the 24 RAPD-types found, three were isolated from cheese made at two different dairies and two other RAPD-types were isolated from cheese from all three dairies. The RAPD-typing indicated a succession between different types of Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria (NSLAB) in cheese from one of the dairies.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The NSLAB in Danbo cheese was studied, with special emphasis on &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus&lt;/i&gt;, using six ripened cheeses of different ages and of different brands. The microflora in five cheeses was dominated by &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus&lt;/i&gt;, but the sixth cheese contained no &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus&lt;/i&gt;. Ten RAPD-types were found and 70 % of the isolates were of RAPD-types found in more than one cheese. The different RAPD-types of NSLAB were identified to species level by Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE). Most NSLAB isolates were identified as &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus paracasei&lt;/i&gt; (76 %), but &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus plantarum&lt;/i&gt;, &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus curvatus&lt;/i&gt; and &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus rhamnosus&lt;/i&gt; were also found.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
37 &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus casei/paracasei&lt;/i&gt; and &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus rhamnosus&lt;/i&gt; strains of mostly human or cheese origin were classified by Restriction Endonuclease Analysis (REA) of the total chromosomal DNA and TTGE of PCR amplified 16s rDNA fragments. REA-typing singled out three major clusters, two composed of &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus paracasei&lt;/i&gt; and one of &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus rhamnosus&lt;/i&gt; strains. The groups obtained by TTGE corresponded generally with the REA-clusters. All &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus paracasei&lt;/i&gt; strains had one amplified 16s rDNA fragment incommon, but were separated into five subgroups due to the presence of one or two additional fragments amplified for some strains. The observed heterogeniety in the 16s rDNA of about half of the tested &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus paracasei&lt;/i&gt; strains might provide an explanation of the diversity within this species.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
A cheese model system, reproducible and comparable to cheese manufactured in full-scale in terms of moisture, salt content, pH and microbial ecology, was developed.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
&lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus&lt;/i&gt; strains originating from cheese or human mucosa were tested as adjunct cultures in the cheese model system. The test-strains were mainly &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus paracasei&lt;/i&gt; and &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus rhamnosus&lt;/i&gt; strains. Adjuncts of &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus paracasei&lt;/i&gt; were re-isolated more frequently than adjuncts of &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus rhamnosus&lt;/i&gt;, but no correlation was found between re-isolation and the origin of the adjunct. The flavour development was generally strain dependent, but adjuncts of &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus paracasei&lt;/i&gt; were slightly more common in improving cheese flavour. Model cheese with a microflora dominated by an RAPD-type of &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus plantarum&lt;/i&gt; was associated with off-flavour and serine degradation.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Two human-derived &lt;i&gt;Lactobacillus paracasei&lt;/i&gt; strains were used as adjunct cultures in pilot scale cheese production. These strains improved cheese flavour and survived passage through the human gastro-intestinal tract when delivered in semi-hard cheese. The NSLAB did not share this characteristic.},
  author       = {Antonsson, Martin},
  isbn         = {91-7874-139-4},
  keyword      = {Livsmedelsteknik,Food and drink technology,Adjunct culture,NSLAB,Non-starter Lactic acid bacteria,Cheese ripening,Model cheese,Lactobacillus paracasei,Cheese,Microbiology,bacteriology,virology,mycology,Mikrobiologi,bakteriologi,virologi,mykologi},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {85},
  publisher    = {Department of Food Technology, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {<i>Lactobacillus</i> in semi-hard cheese and their use as adjunct cultures},
  year         = {2001},
}