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WONOEP appraisal: Optogenetic tools to suppress seizures and explore the mechanisms of epileptogenesis

Ritter, Laura Mantoan; Golshani, Peyman; Takahashi, Koji; Dufour, Suzie; Valiante, Taufik and Kokaia, Merab LU (2014) In Epilepsia 55(11). p.1693-1702
Abstract
Optogenetics is a novel technology that combines optics and genetics by optical control of microbial opsins, targeted to living cell membranes. The versatility and the electrophysiologic characteristics of the light-sensitive ion-channels channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), halorhodopsin (NpHR), and the light-sensitive proton pump archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) make these optogenetic tools potent candidates in controlling neuronal firing in models of epilepsy and in providing insights into the physiology and pathology of neuronal network organization and synchronization. Opsins allow selective activation of excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons, or subclasses of interneurons, to study their activity patterns in distinct brain-states in vivo and... (More)
Optogenetics is a novel technology that combines optics and genetics by optical control of microbial opsins, targeted to living cell membranes. The versatility and the electrophysiologic characteristics of the light-sensitive ion-channels channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), halorhodopsin (NpHR), and the light-sensitive proton pump archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) make these optogenetic tools potent candidates in controlling neuronal firing in models of epilepsy and in providing insights into the physiology and pathology of neuronal network organization and synchronization. Opsins allow selective activation of excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons, or subclasses of interneurons, to study their activity patterns in distinct brain-states in vivo and to dissect their role in generation of synchrony and seizures. The influence of gliotransmission on epileptic network function is another topic of great interest that can be further explored by using light-activated Gq protein-coupled opsins for selective activation of astrocytes. The ever-growing optogenetic toolbox can also be combined with emerging techniques that have greatly expanded our ability to record specific subtypes of cortical and hippocampal neurons in awake behaving animals such as juxtacellular recording and two-photon guided whole-cell recording, to identify the specific subtypes of neurons that are altered in epileptic networks. Finally, optogenetic tools allow rapid and reversible suppression of epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) activity upon photoactivation. This review outlines the most recent advances achieved with optogenetic techniques in the field of epilepsy by summarizing the presentations contributed to the 13th ILAE WONOEP meeting held in the Laurentian Mountains, Quebec, in June 2013. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Epilepsy, Interneurons, Gliotransmission, Optic inhibition, Halorhodopsin, Channelrhodopsin, Seizure detection
in
Epilepsia
volume
55
issue
11
pages
1693 - 1702
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • wos:000345227400009
  • scopus:84921949319
ISSN
0013-9580
DOI
10.1111/epi.12804
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
7cefea65-4637-42c6-b48b-a7008dab12c5 (old id 4984618)
date added to LUP
2015-02-03 07:13:58
date last changed
2017-11-05 03:17:32
@article{7cefea65-4637-42c6-b48b-a7008dab12c5,
  abstract     = {Optogenetics is a novel technology that combines optics and genetics by optical control of microbial opsins, targeted to living cell membranes. The versatility and the electrophysiologic characteristics of the light-sensitive ion-channels channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), halorhodopsin (NpHR), and the light-sensitive proton pump archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) make these optogenetic tools potent candidates in controlling neuronal firing in models of epilepsy and in providing insights into the physiology and pathology of neuronal network organization and synchronization. Opsins allow selective activation of excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons, or subclasses of interneurons, to study their activity patterns in distinct brain-states in vivo and to dissect their role in generation of synchrony and seizures. The influence of gliotransmission on epileptic network function is another topic of great interest that can be further explored by using light-activated Gq protein-coupled opsins for selective activation of astrocytes. The ever-growing optogenetic toolbox can also be combined with emerging techniques that have greatly expanded our ability to record specific subtypes of cortical and hippocampal neurons in awake behaving animals such as juxtacellular recording and two-photon guided whole-cell recording, to identify the specific subtypes of neurons that are altered in epileptic networks. Finally, optogenetic tools allow rapid and reversible suppression of epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) activity upon photoactivation. This review outlines the most recent advances achieved with optogenetic techniques in the field of epilepsy by summarizing the presentations contributed to the 13th ILAE WONOEP meeting held in the Laurentian Mountains, Quebec, in June 2013.},
  author       = {Ritter, Laura Mantoan and Golshani, Peyman and Takahashi, Koji and Dufour, Suzie and Valiante, Taufik and Kokaia, Merab},
  issn         = {0013-9580},
  keyword      = {Epilepsy,Interneurons,Gliotransmission,Optic inhibition,Halorhodopsin,Channelrhodopsin,Seizure detection},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1693--1702},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Epilepsia},
  title        = {WONOEP appraisal: Optogenetic tools to suppress seizures and explore the mechanisms of epileptogenesis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.12804},
  volume       = {55},
  year         = {2014},
}