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Evacuation of a Metro Train in an Underground Rail Transportation System: Flow Rate Capacity of Train Exits, Tunnel Walking Speeds and Exit Choice

Fridolf, Karl LU ; Nilsson, Daniel LU and Frantzich, Håkan LU (2015) In Fire Technology 51(March). p.1-38
Abstract
Including in total 135 participants in the ages 19–69 years (recruited from the general public), an unannounced full-scale field evacuation experiment was performed in the Stockholm underground metro system on the night between October 17 and 18, 2013. The purpose was to collect data on the flow rate of people in train exits during the evacuation of a train in a tunnel and on the walking speed of people when moving long distances on an uneven surface in a tunnel, and to study exit choice and behaviour during an evacuation. Consequently, the experiment involved the evacuation of a rail car (a Bombardier C20 train) in a tunnel as well as the subsequent evacuation of the tunnel itself; the latter meant that the participants either could... (More)
Including in total 135 participants in the ages 19–69 years (recruited from the general public), an unannounced full-scale field evacuation experiment was performed in the Stockholm underground metro system on the night between October 17 and 18, 2013. The purpose was to collect data on the flow rate of people in train exits during the evacuation of a train in a tunnel and on the walking speed of people when moving long distances on an uneven surface in a tunnel, and to study exit choice and behaviour during an evacuation. Consequently, the experiment involved the evacuation of a rail car (a Bombardier C20 train) in a tunnel as well as the subsequent evacuation of the tunnel itself; the latter meant that the participants either could evacuate to the closest station (~400 m) or to an available emergency exit (~200 m). Among other things, the experiment demonstrated that the averaged flow rates of people in the train exits varied between 0.19 p/s and 0.22 p/s (0.14–0.16 p/m s when considering the train exit width of 1.4 m) and that the averaged walking speeds in the tunnel varied between 1.1 m/s and 1.2 m/s (no smoke present). Furthermore, all 135 participants found and used the available emergency exit, which had been equipped with a technical system consisting of a loudspeaker that broadcasted a combined alarm signal and a pre-recorded voice message. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Evacuation experiment, Underground rail transportation system, Flow rate of people, Walking speed, Exit choice, Human behaviour in fire
in
Fire Technology
volume
51
issue
March
pages
1 - 38
publisher
Kluwer
external identifiers
  • scopus:84924565644
ISSN
0015-2684
DOI
10.1007/s10694-015-0471-4
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
0e697878-cb08-4253-8450-fcd55e1208ae (old id 5156449)
date added to LUP
2015-03-19 14:54:48
date last changed
2017-08-13 04:34:30
@article{0e697878-cb08-4253-8450-fcd55e1208ae,
  abstract     = {Including in total 135 participants in the ages 19–69 years (recruited from the general public), an unannounced full-scale field evacuation experiment was performed in the Stockholm underground metro system on the night between October 17 and 18, 2013. The purpose was to collect data on the flow rate of people in train exits during the evacuation of a train in a tunnel and on the walking speed of people when moving long distances on an uneven surface in a tunnel, and to study exit choice and behaviour during an evacuation. Consequently, the experiment involved the evacuation of a rail car (a Bombardier C20 train) in a tunnel as well as the subsequent evacuation of the tunnel itself; the latter meant that the participants either could evacuate to the closest station (~400 m) or to an available emergency exit (~200 m). Among other things, the experiment demonstrated that the averaged flow rates of people in the train exits varied between 0.19 p/s and 0.22 p/s (0.14–0.16 p/m s when considering the train exit width of 1.4 m) and that the averaged walking speeds in the tunnel varied between 1.1 m/s and 1.2 m/s (no smoke present). Furthermore, all 135 participants found and used the available emergency exit, which had been equipped with a technical system consisting of a loudspeaker that broadcasted a combined alarm signal and a pre-recorded voice message.},
  author       = {Fridolf, Karl and Nilsson, Daniel and Frantzich, Håkan},
  issn         = {0015-2684},
  keyword      = {Evacuation experiment,Underground rail transportation system,Flow rate of people,Walking speed,Exit choice,Human behaviour in fire},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {March},
  pages        = {1--38},
  publisher    = {Kluwer},
  series       = {Fire Technology},
  title        = {Evacuation of a Metro Train in an Underground Rail Transportation System: Flow Rate Capacity of Train Exits, Tunnel Walking Speeds and Exit Choice},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10694-015-0471-4},
  volume       = {51},
  year         = {2015},
}