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The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas LU and Sallsten, Gerd (2013) In Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 268(3). p.286-293
Abstract
Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated... (More)
Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r(p) = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r(p) = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 mu g/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 mu g/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Biological half-time, Biomonitoring, Cadmium, General population, Kidney, Relationship
in
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
volume
268
issue
3
pages
286 - 293
publisher
Academic Press
external identifiers
  • wos:000317795300005
  • scopus:84875311806
ISSN
1096-0333
DOI
10.1016/j.taap.2013.02.009
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
525106dd-fb51-4efe-9b86-5d5baea6f1d8 (old id 3739026)
date added to LUP
2013-06-03 08:32:02
date last changed
2019-07-07 03:57:06
@article{525106dd-fb51-4efe-9b86-5d5baea6f1d8,
  abstract     = {Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r(p) = 0.70, p &lt; 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r(p) = 0.44, p &lt; 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 mu g/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 mu g/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Akerstrom, Magnus and Barregard, Lars and Lundh, Thomas and Sallsten, Gerd},
  issn         = {1096-0333},
  keyword      = {Biological half-time,Biomonitoring,Cadmium,General population,Kidney,Relationship},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {286--293},
  publisher    = {Academic Press},
  series       = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
  title        = {The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2013.02.009},
  volume       = {268},
  year         = {2013},
}