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Longitudinal 10-year changes in dietary intake and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study

Winkvist, Anna; Klingberg, Sofia; Nilsson, Lena Maria LU ; Wennberg, Maria; Renström, Frida LU ; Hallmans, Göran; Boman, Kurt and Johansson, Ingegerd (2017) In Nutrition Journal 16(1).
Abstract

Background: Dietary risks today constitute the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally and in Sweden. An increasing number of people today consume highly processed foods high in saturated fat, refined sugar and salt and low in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. It is important that dietary trends over time are monitored to predict changes in disease risk. Methods: In total, 15,995 individuals with two visits 10 (±1) years apart in the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme 1996-2014 were included. Dietary intake was captured with a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Percent changes in intake of dietary components, Healthy Diet Score and Dietary Inflammatory Index were calculated and... (More)

Background: Dietary risks today constitute the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally and in Sweden. An increasing number of people today consume highly processed foods high in saturated fat, refined sugar and salt and low in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. It is important that dietary trends over time are monitored to predict changes in disease risk. Methods: In total, 15,995 individuals with two visits 10 (±1) years apart in the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme 1996-2014 were included. Dietary intake was captured with a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Percent changes in intake of dietary components, Healthy Diet Score and Dietary Inflammatory Index were calculated and related to body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and blood pressure at the second visit in multivariable regression analyses. Results: For both sexes, on group level, proportion of energy intake (E%) from carbohydrates and sucrose decreased (largest carbohydrate decrease among 40 year-olds) and E% protein and total fat as well as saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (highest protein increase among 30 year-olds and highest fat increase among 60 year-olds) over the 10-year period. Also, E% trans-fatty acids decreased. On individual basis, for both sexes decreases in intake of cholesterol and trans-fatty acids were associated with lower BMI and serum cholesterol at second visit (all P < 0.05). For men, increases in intake of whole grain and Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower BMI and serum cholesterol at second visit (all P < 0.05). Also for men, decreases in intake of trans-fatty acids and increases in Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower systolic blood pressure at second visit (P = 0.002 and P < 0.000). For women, increases in intake of PUFA and Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower BMI at second visit (P = 0.01 and P < 0.05). Surprisingly, increases in intake of sucrose among women were associated with lower BMI at second visit (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In this large population-based sample, dietary changes over 10 years towards less carbohydrates and more protein and fat were noted. Individual changes towards the Nordic dietary recommendations were associated with healthier cardio-metabolic risk factor profile at second visit.

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author
organization
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Body mass index, Diet intake, Dietary Inflammatory Index, Healthy Diet Score, Northern Sweden Diet Database, Population-based, Serum lipids, Sweden
in
Nutrition Journal
volume
16
issue
1
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • scopus:85016436301
  • wos:000397662900001
ISSN
1475-2891
DOI
10.1186/s12937-017-0241-x
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
5667a3a6-f619-40db-b0dd-728f128f9548
date added to LUP
2017-05-02 16:08:22
date last changed
2017-11-02 11:32:43
@article{5667a3a6-f619-40db-b0dd-728f128f9548,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Dietary risks today constitute the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally and in Sweden. An increasing number of people today consume highly processed foods high in saturated fat, refined sugar and salt and low in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. It is important that dietary trends over time are monitored to predict changes in disease risk. Methods: In total, 15,995 individuals with two visits 10 (±1) years apart in the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme 1996-2014 were included. Dietary intake was captured with a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Percent changes in intake of dietary components, Healthy Diet Score and Dietary Inflammatory Index were calculated and related to body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and blood pressure at the second visit in multivariable regression analyses. Results: For both sexes, on group level, proportion of energy intake (E%) from carbohydrates and sucrose decreased (largest carbohydrate decrease among 40 year-olds) and E% protein and total fat as well as saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (highest protein increase among 30 year-olds and highest fat increase among 60 year-olds) over the 10-year period. Also, E% trans-fatty acids decreased. On individual basis, for both sexes decreases in intake of cholesterol and trans-fatty acids were associated with lower BMI and serum cholesterol at second visit (all P &lt; 0.05). For men, increases in intake of whole grain and Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower BMI and serum cholesterol at second visit (all P &lt; 0.05). Also for men, decreases in intake of trans-fatty acids and increases in Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower systolic blood pressure at second visit (P = 0.002 and P &lt; 0.000). For women, increases in intake of PUFA and Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower BMI at second visit (P = 0.01 and P &lt; 0.05). Surprisingly, increases in intake of sucrose among women were associated with lower BMI at second visit (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In this large population-based sample, dietary changes over 10 years towards less carbohydrates and more protein and fat were noted. Individual changes towards the Nordic dietary recommendations were associated with healthier cardio-metabolic risk factor profile at second visit.</p>},
  articleno    = {20},
  author       = {Winkvist, Anna and Klingberg, Sofia and Nilsson, Lena Maria and Wennberg, Maria and Renström, Frida and Hallmans, Göran and Boman, Kurt and Johansson, Ingegerd},
  issn         = {1475-2891},
  keyword      = {Body mass index,Diet intake,Dietary Inflammatory Index,Healthy Diet Score,Northern Sweden Diet Database,Population-based,Serum lipids,Sweden},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {03},
  number       = {1},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {Nutrition Journal},
  title        = {Longitudinal 10-year changes in dietary intake and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-017-0241-x},
  volume       = {16},
  year         = {2017},
}