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Interplay between genetic predisposition, macronutrient intake and type 2 diabetes incidence : analysis within EPIC-InterAct across eight European countries

Li, Sherly X.; Imamura, Fumiaki; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Agudo, Antonio; Ardanaz, Eva LU ; Aune, Dagfinn; Boeing, Heiner and Dorronsoro, Miren, et al. (2018) In Diabetologia 61(6). p.1325-1332
Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: Gene–macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Methods: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident... (More)

Aims/hypothesis: Gene–macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Methods: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident type 2 diabetes cases). Macronutrient intake was estimated from diets reported in questionnaires, including proportion of energy derived from total carbohydrate, protein, fat, plant and animal protein, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat and dietary fibre. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression, we estimated country-specific interaction results on the multiplicative scale, using random-effects meta-analysis. Secondary analysis used isocaloric macronutrient substitution. Results: No interactions were identified between any of the three GRSs and any macronutrient intake, with low-to-moderate heterogeneity between countries (I2 range 0–51.6%). Results were similar using isocaloric macronutrient substitution analyses and when weighted and unweighted GRSs and individual SNPs were examined. Conclusions/interpretation: Genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI did not modify the association between macronutrient intake and incident type 2 diabetes. This suggests that macronutrient intake recommendations to prevent type 2 diabetes do not need to account for differences in genetic predisposition to these three metabolic conditions.

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publication status
published
subject
keywords
BMI, Body mass index, Diabetes, Diet, Dietary fibre, Genetic risk score, GRS, Insulin resistance, Interaction, Macronutrient
in
Diabetologia
volume
61
issue
6
pages
1325 - 1332
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • scopus:85044017538
ISSN
0012-186X
DOI
10.1007/s00125-018-4586-2
language
English
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yes
id
6b7e9f29-6f58-415c-9c6b-0c5518951b30
date added to LUP
2018-04-06 07:24:32
date last changed
2019-02-20 11:12:56
@article{6b7e9f29-6f58-415c-9c6b-0c5518951b30,
  abstract     = {<p>Aims/hypothesis: Gene–macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Methods: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident type 2 diabetes cases). Macronutrient intake was estimated from diets reported in questionnaires, including proportion of energy derived from total carbohydrate, protein, fat, plant and animal protein, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat and dietary fibre. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression, we estimated country-specific interaction results on the multiplicative scale, using random-effects meta-analysis. Secondary analysis used isocaloric macronutrient substitution. Results: No interactions were identified between any of the three GRSs and any macronutrient intake, with low-to-moderate heterogeneity between countries (I<sup>2</sup> range 0–51.6%). Results were similar using isocaloric macronutrient substitution analyses and when weighted and unweighted GRSs and individual SNPs were examined. Conclusions/interpretation: Genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI did not modify the association between macronutrient intake and incident type 2 diabetes. This suggests that macronutrient intake recommendations to prevent type 2 diabetes do not need to account for differences in genetic predisposition to these three metabolic conditions.</p>},
  author       = {Li, Sherly X. and Imamura, Fumiaki and Schulze, Matthias B. and Zheng, Jusheng and Ye, Zheng and Agudo, Antonio and Ardanaz, Eva and Aune, Dagfinn and Boeing, Heiner and Dorronsoro, Miren and Dow, Courtney and Fagherazzi, Guy and Grioni, Sara and Gunter, Marc J. and Huerta, José María and Ibsen, Daniel B. and Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre and Kaaks, Rudolf and Key, Timothy J. and Khaw, Kay Tee and Kyrø, Cecilie and Mancini, Francesca Romana and Molina-Portillo, Elena and Murphy, Neil and Nilsson, Peter M. and Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte and Palli, Domenico and Panico, Salvatore and Poveda, Alaitz and Quirós, J. Ramón and Ricceri, Fulvio and Sluijs, Ivonne and Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W. and Tjonneland, Anne and Tumino, Rosario and Winkvist, Anna and Langenberg, Claudia and Sharp, Stephen J. and Riboli, Elio and Scott, Robert A. and Forouhi, Nita G. and Wareham, Nicholas J.},
  issn         = {0012-186X},
  keyword      = {BMI,Body mass index,Diabetes,Diet,Dietary fibre,Genetic risk score,GRS,Insulin resistance,Interaction,Macronutrient},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {03},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {1325--1332},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Diabetologia},
  title        = {Interplay between genetic predisposition, macronutrient intake and type 2 diabetes incidence : analysis within EPIC-InterAct across eight European countries},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-018-4586-2},
  volume       = {61},
  year         = {2018},
}