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The urban domino effect: a conceptualization of cities’ interconnectedness of risk, Input paper

Wamsler, Christine LU and Brink, Ebba LU (2015) In Global assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 p.1-39
Abstract
Cities are both at risk and the cause of risk. The interconnectedness of urban features and systems increases the likelihood of complex disasters and a cascade or ‘domino’ effect from related impacts. However, the lack of research means that our knowledge of urban risk is both scarce and fragmented. This paper presents a framework for understanding and addressing urban risk. It examines the unique dynamics of risk in urban settings and exemplifies its particularities with data and analysis of specific cases. From this, it identifies improvements both in the content and indicators of the successor to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2) that will be adopted in 2015. While it is common to see disasters as ‘causes’, and the destruction of... (More)
Cities are both at risk and the cause of risk. The interconnectedness of urban features and systems increases the likelihood of complex disasters and a cascade or ‘domino’ effect from related impacts. However, the lack of research means that our knowledge of urban risk is both scarce and fragmented. This paper presents a framework for understanding and addressing urban risk. It examines the unique dynamics of risk in urban settings and exemplifies its particularities with data and analysis of specific cases. From this, it identifies improvements both in the content and indicators of the successor to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2) that will be adopted in 2015. While it is common to see disasters as ‘causes’, and the destruction of the built environment as ‘effects’, this paper highlights that the intricate links between cities and disasters cannot be described by a unidirectional cause-and-effect relationship. The city–disasters nexus is a bidirectional relationship, which constantly shapes, and is shaped by, other processes (such as climate change). This paper demonstrates how the characteristics of the urban fabric (physical/ spatial, environmental, social, economic and political/ institutional) and related systems increase risk by: (i) intensifying hazards or creating new ones, (ii) exacerbating vulnerabilities, and (iii) negatively affecting existing response and recovery mechanisms. We argue that in-depth knowledge of the links between cities’ characteristic features, related systems and disasters is indispensable for addressing root causes and mainstreaming risk reduction into urban sector work. It enables city authorities and other urban actors to improve and adapt their work without negatively influencing the interconnectedness of urban risk. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
keywords
resilience, cities, urban planning, risk reduction
in
Global assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015
pages
1 - 39
publisher
The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
09136165-78ee-441e-9dc0-36a0da184238 (old id 7512636)
alternative location
http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/2015/en/bgdocs/Wamsler%20and%20Brink,%202014.pdf
date added to LUP
2016-03-23 17:01:26
date last changed
2016-04-16 10:06:28
@inbook{09136165-78ee-441e-9dc0-36a0da184238,
  abstract     = {Cities are both at risk and the cause of risk. The interconnectedness of urban features and systems increases the likelihood of complex disasters and a cascade or ‘domino’ effect from related impacts. However, the lack of research means that our knowledge of urban risk is both scarce and fragmented. This paper presents a framework for understanding and addressing urban risk. It examines the unique dynamics of risk in urban settings and exemplifies its particularities with data and analysis of specific cases. From this, it identifies improvements both in the content and indicators of the successor to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2) that will be adopted in 2015. While it is common to see disasters as ‘causes’, and the destruction of the built environment as ‘effects’, this paper highlights that the intricate links between cities and disasters cannot be described by a unidirectional cause-and-effect relationship. The city–disasters nexus is a bidirectional relationship, which constantly shapes, and is shaped by, other processes (such as climate change). This paper demonstrates how the characteristics of the urban fabric (physical/ spatial, environmental, social, economic and political/ institutional) and related systems increase risk by: (i) intensifying hazards or creating new ones, (ii) exacerbating vulnerabilities, and (iii) negatively affecting existing response and recovery mechanisms. We argue that in-depth knowledge of the links between cities’ characteristic features, related systems and disasters is indispensable for addressing root causes and mainstreaming risk reduction into urban sector work. It enables city authorities and other urban actors to improve and adapt their work without negatively influencing the interconnectedness of urban risk.},
  author       = {Wamsler, Christine and Brink, Ebba},
  keyword      = {resilience,cities,urban planning,risk reduction},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {1--39},
  publisher    = {The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction},
  series       = {Global assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015},
  title        = {The urban domino effect: a conceptualization of cities’ interconnectedness of risk, Input paper},
  year         = {2015},
}