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Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

Vos, Theo; Barber, Ryan M.; Bell, Brad; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Biryukov, Stan; Bolliger, Ian; Charlson, Fiona; Davis, Adrian; Degenhardt, Louisa and Dicker, Daniel, et al. (2015) In The Lancet 386(9995). p.743-800
Abstract
Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of... (More)
Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries. Findings Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2.4 billion and 1.6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537.6 million in 1990 to 764.8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114.87 per 1000 people to 110.31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21.1% in 1990 to 31.2% in 2013. Interpretation Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries. (Less)
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The Lancet
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386
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9995
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Elsevier Limited
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1474-547X
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10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4
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English
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@article{77dee1c1-ad87-4e82-a867-f8a74f99d3cc,
  abstract     = {Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries. Findings Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2.4 billion and 1.6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537.6 million in 1990 to 764.8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114.87 per 1000 people to 110.31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21.1% in 1990 to 31.2% in 2013. Interpretation Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries.},
  author       = {Vos, Theo and Barber, Ryan M. and Bell, Brad and Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia and Biryukov, Stan and Bolliger, Ian and Charlson, Fiona and Davis, Adrian and Degenhardt, Louisa and Dicker, Daniel and Duan, Leilei and Erskine, Holly and Feigin, Valery L. and Ferrari, Alize J. and Fitzmaurice, Christina and Fleming, Thomas and Graetz, Nicholas and Guinovart, Caterina and Haagsma, Juanita and Hansen, Gillian M. and Hanson, Sarah Wulf and Heuton, Kyle R. and Higashi, Hideki and Kassebaum, Nicholas and Kyu, Hmwe and Laurie, Evan and Liang, Xiofeng and Lofgren, Katherine and Lozano, Rafael and MacIntyre, Michael F. and Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar and Naghavi, Mohsen and Nguyen, Grant and Odell, Shaun and Ortblad, Katrina and Roberts, David Allen and Roth, Gregory A. and Sandar, Logan and Serina, Peter T. and Stanaway, Jeffrey D. and Steiner, Caitlyn and Thomas, Bernadette and Vollset, Stein Emil and Whiteford, Harvey and Wolock, Timothy M. and Ye, Pengpeng and Zhou, Maigeng and Avila, Marco A. and Aasvang, Gunn Marit and Abbafati, Cristiana and Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu and Abd-Allah, Foad and Aziz, Muna I. Abdel and Abera, Semaw F. and Aboyans, Victor and Abraham, Jerry P. and Abraham, Biju and Abubakar, Ibrahim and Abu-Raddad, Laith J. and Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E. and Aburto, Tania C. and Achoki, Tom and Ackerman, Ilana N. and Adelekan, Ademola and Ademi, Zanfina and Adou, Arsene K. and Adsuar, Josef C. and Arnlov, Johan and Agardh, Emilie E. and Al Khabouri, Mazin J. and Alam, Sayed Saidul and Alasfoor, Deena and Albittar, Mohammed I. and Alegretti, Miguel A. and Aleman, Alicia V. and Alemu, Zewdie A. and Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael and Alhabib, Samia and Ali, Raghib and Alla, Francois and Allebeck, Peter and Allen, Peter J. and AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz and Alsharif, Ubai and Alvarez, Elena and Alvis-Guzman, Nelson and Ameli, Omid and Amini, Heresh and Ammar, Walid and Anderson, Benjamin O. and Anderson, H. Ross and Antonio, Carl Abelardo T. and Anwari, Palwasha and Apfel, Henry and Arsenijevic, Valentain S. Arsic and Artaman, Al and Asghar, Rana J. and Assadi, Reza and Atkins, Lydia S. and Atkinson, Charles and Badawi, Alaa and Bahit, Maria C. and Bakfalouni, Talal and Balakrishnan, Kalpana and Balalla, Shivanthi and Banerjee, Amitava and Barker-Collo, Suzanne L. and Barquera, Simon and Barregard, Lars and Barrero, Lope H. and Basu, Sanjay and Basu, Arindam and Baxter, Amanda and Beardsley, Justin and Bedi, Neeraj and Beghi, Ettore and Bekele, Tolesa and Bell, Michelle L. and Benjet, Corina and Bennett, Derrick A. and Bensenor, Isabela M. and Benzian, Habib and Bernabe, Eduardo and Beyene, Tariku J. and Bhala, Neeraj and Bhalla, Ashish and Bhutta, Zulfi Qar and Bienhoff, Kelly and Bikbov, Boris and Bin Abdulhak, Aref and Blore, Jed D. and Blyth, Fiona M. and Bohensky, Megan A. and Basara, Berrak Bora and Borges, Guilherme and Bornstein, Natan M. and Bose, Dipan and Boufous, Soufiane and Bourne, Rupert R. and Boyers, Lindsay N. and Brainin, Michael and Brauer, Michael and Brayne, Carol E. G. and Brazinova, Alexandra and Breitborde, Nicholas J. K. and Brenner, Hermann and Briggs, Adam D. M. and Brooks, Peter M. and Brown, Jonathan and Brugha, Traolach S. and Buchbinder, Rachelle and Buckle, Geoffrey C. and Bukhman, Gene and Bulloch, Andrew G. and Burch, Michael and Burnett, Richard and Cardenas, Rosario and Cabral, Norberto L. and Nonato, Ismael R. Campos and Campuzano, Julio C. and Carapetis, Jonathan R. and Carpenter, David O. and Caso, Valeria and Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A. and Catala-Lopez, Ferran and Chadha, Vineet K. and Chang, Jung-Chen and Chen, Honglei and Chen, Wanqing and Chiang, Peggy P. and Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel and Chowdhury, Rajiv and Christensen, Hanne and Christophi, Costas A. and Chugh, Sumeet S. and Cirillo, Massimo and Coggeshall, Megan and Cohen, Aaron and Colistro, Valentina and Colquhoun, Samantha M. and Contreras, Alejandra G. and Cooper, Leslie T. and Cooper, Cyrus and Cooperrider, Kimberly and Coresh, Josef and Cortinovis, Monica and Criqui, Michael H. and Crump, John A. and Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia and Dandona, Rakhi and Dandona, Lalit and Dansereau, Emily and Dantes, Hector G. and Dargan, Paul I. and Davey, Gail and Davitoiu, Dragos V. and Dayama, Anand and De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa and de la Vega, Shelley F. and De Leo, Diego and del Pozo-Cruz, Borja and Dellavalle, Robert P. and Deribe, Kebede and Derrett, Sarah and Des Jarlais, Don C. and Dessalegn, Muluken and de Veber, Gabrielle A. and Dharmaratne, Samath D. and Diaz-Torne, Cesar and Ding, Eric L. and Dokova, Klara and Dorsey, E. R. and Driscoll, Tim R. and Duber, Herbert and Durrani, Adnan M. and Edmond, Karen M. and Ellenbogen, Richard G. and Endres, Matthias and Ermakov, Sergey P. and Eshrati, Babak and Esteghamati, Alireza and Estep, Kara and Fahimi, Saman and Farzadfar, Farshad and Fay, Derek F. J. and Felson, David T. and Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad and Fernandes, Jefferson G. and Ferri, Cluesa P. and Flaxman, Abraham and Foigt, Nataliya and Foreman, Kyle J. and Fowkes, F. Gerry R. and Franklin, Richard C. and Furst, Thomas and Futran, Neal D. and Gabbe, Belinda J. and Gankpe, Fortune G. and Garcia-Guerra, Francisco A. and Geleijnse, Johanna M. and Gessner, Bradford D. and Gibney, Katherine B. and Gillum, Richard F. and Ginawi, Ibrahim A. and Giroud, Maurice and Giussani, Giorgia and Goenka, Shifalika and Goginashvili, Ketevan and Gona, Philimon and de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez and Gosselin, Richard A. and Gotay, Carolyn C. and Goto, Atsushi and Gouda, Hebe N. and Guerrant, Richard L. and Gugnani, Harish C. and Gunnell, David and Gupta, Rajeev and Gupta, Rahul and Gutierrez, Reyna A. and Hafezi-Nejad, Nima and Hagan, Holly and Halasa, Yara and Hamadeh, Randah R. and Hamavid, Hannah and Hammami, Mouhanad and Hankey, Graeme J. and Hao, Yuantao and Harb, Hilda L. and Haro, Josep Maria and Havmoeller, Rasmus and Hay, Roderick J. and Hay, Simon and Hedayati, Mohammad T. and Pi, Ileana B. Heredia and Heydarpour, Pouria and Hijar, Martha and Hoek, Hans W. and Hoffman, Howard J. and Hornberger, John C. and Hosgood, H. Dean and Hossain, Mazeda and Hotez, Peter J. and Hoy, Damian G. and Hsairi, Mohamed and Hu, Howard and Hu, Guoqing and Huang, John J. and Huang, Cheng and Huiart, Laetitia and Husseini, Abdullatif and Iannarone, Marissa and Iburg, Kim M. and Innos, Kaire and Inoue, Manami and Jacobsen, Kathryn H. and Jassal, Simerjot K. and Jeemon, Panniyammakal and Jensen, Paul N. and Jha, Vivekanand and Jiang, Guohong and Jiang, Ying and Jonas, Jost B. and Joseph, Jonathan and Juel, Knud and Kan, Haidong and Karch, Andre and Karimkhani, Chante and Karthikeyan, Ganesan and Katz, Ronit and Kaul, Anil and Kawakami, Norito and Kazi, Dhruv S. and Kemp, Andrew H. and Kengne, Andre P. and Khader, Yousef S. and Khalifa, Shams Eldin A. H. and Khan, Ejaz A. and Khan, Gulfaraz and Khang, Young-Ho and Khonelidze, Irma and Kieling, Christian and Kim, Daniel and Kim, Sungroul and Kimokoti, Ruth W. and Kinfu, Yohannes and Kinge, Jonas M. and Kissela, Brett M. and Kivipelto, Miia and Knibbs, Luke and Knudsen, Ann Kristin and Kokubo, Yoshihiro and Kosen, Soewarta and Kramer, Alexander and Kravchenko, Michael and Krishnamurthi, Rita V. and Krishnaswami, Sanjay and Defo, Barthelemy Kuate and Bicer, Burcu Kucuk and Kuipers, Ernst J. and Kulkarni, Veena S. and Kumar, Kaushalendra and Kumar, G. Anil and Kwan, Gene F. and Lai, Taavi and Lalloo, Ratilal and Lam, Hilton and Lan, Qing and Lansingh, Van C. and Larson, Heidi and Larsson, Anders and Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B. and Leasher, Janet L. and Lee, Jong-Tae and Leigh, James and Leung, Ricky and Levi, Miriam and Li, Bin and Li, Yichong and Li, Yongmei and Liang, Juan and Lim, Stephen and Lin, Hsien-Ho and Lind, Margaret and Lindsay, M. Patrice and Lipshultz, Steven E. and Liu, Shiwei and Lloyd, Belinda K. and Ohno, Summer Lockett and Logroscino, Giancarlo and Looker, Katharine J. and Lopez, Alan D. and Lopez-Olmedo, Nancy and Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie and Lotufo, Paulo A. and Low, Nicola and Lucas, Robyn M. and Lunevicius, Raimundas and Lyons, Ronan A. and Ma, Jixiang and Ma, Stefan and Mackay, Mark T. and Majdan, Marek and Malekzadeh, Reza and Mapoma, Christopher C. and Marcenes, Wagner and March, Lyn M. and Margono, Chris and Marks, Guy B. and Marzan, Melvin B. and Masci, Joseph R. and Mason-Jones, Amanda J. and Matzopoulos, Richard G. and Mayosi, Bongani M. and Mazorodze, Tasara T. and McGill, Neil W. and McGrath, John J. and McKee, Martin and McLain, Abby and McMahon, Brian J. and Meaney, Peter A. and Mehndiratta, Man Mohan and Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola and Mekonnen, Wubegzier and Melaku, Yohannes A. and Meltzer, Michele and Memish, Ziad A. and Mensah, George and Meretoja, Atte and Mhimbira, Francis A. and Micha, Renata and Miller, Ted R. and Mills, Edward J. and Mitchell, Philip B. and Mock, Charles N. and Moffitt, Terrie E. and Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed and Mohammad, Karzan A. and Mokdad, Ali H. and Mola, Glen L. and Monasta, Lorenzo and Montico, Marcella and Montine, Thomas J. and Moore, Ami R. and Moran, Andrew E. and Morawska, Lidia and Mori, Rintaro and Moschandreas, Joanna and Moturi, Wilkister N. and Moyer, Madeline and Mozaffarian, Dariush and Mueller, Ulrich O. and Mukaigawara, Mitsuru and Murdoch, Michele E. and Murray, Joseph and Murthy, Kinnari S. and Naghavi, Paria and Nahas, Ziad and Naheed, Aliya and Naidoo, Kovin S. and Naldi, Luigi and Nand, Devina and Nangia, Vinay and Narayan, K. M. Venkat and Nash, Denis and Nejjari, Chakib and Neupane, Sudan P. and Newman, Lori M. and Newton, Charles R. and Ng, Marie and Ngalesoni, Frida N. and Nhung, Nguyen T. and Nisar, Muhammad I. and Nolte, Sandra and Norheim, Ole F. and Norman, Rosana E. and Norrving, Bo and Nyakarahuka, Luke and Oh, In Hwan and Ohkubo, Takayoshi and Omer, Saad B. and Opio, John Nelson and Ortiz, Alberto and Pandian, Jeyaraj D. and Panelo, Carlo Irwin A. and Papachristou, Christina and Park, Eun-Kee and Parry, Charles D. and Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina and Patten, Scott B. and Paul, Vinod K. and Pavlin, Boris I. and Pearce, Neil and Pedraza, Lilia S. and Pellegrini, Carlos A. and Pereira, David M. and Perez-Ruiz, Fernando P. and Perico, Norberto and Pervaiz, Aslam and Pesudovs, Konrad and Peterson, Carrie B. and Petzold, Max and Phillips, Michael R. and Phillips, David and Phillips, Bryan and Piel, Frederic B. and Plass, Dietrich and Poenaru, Dan and Polanczyk, Guilherme V. and Polinder, Suzanne and Pope III, C. A. and Popova, Svetlana and Poulton, Richie G. and Pourmalek, Farshad and Prabhakaran, Dorairaj and Prasad, Noela M. and Qato, Dima and Quistberg, D. A. and Rafay, Anwar and Rahimi, Kazem and Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa and Rahman, Sajjad Ur and Raju, Murugesan and Rakovac, Ivo and Rana, Saleem M. and Razavi, Homie and Refaat, Amany and Rehm, Jurgen and Remuzzi, Giuseppe and Resnikoff, Serge and Ribeiro, Antonio L. and Riccio, Patricia M. and Richardson, Lee and Richardus, Jan Hendrik and Riederer, Anne M. and Robinson, Margot and Roca, Anna and Rodriguez, Alina and Rojas-Rueda, David and Ronfani, Luca and Rothenbacher, Dietrich and Roy, Nobhojit and Ruhago, George M. and Sabin, Nsanzimana and Sacco, Ralph L. and Ksoreide, Kjetil and Saha, Sukanta and Sahathevan, Ramesh and Sahraian, Mohammad Ali and Sampson, Uchechukwu and Sanabria, Juan R. and Sanchez-Riera, Lidia and Santos, Itamar S. and Satpathy, Maheswar and Saunders, James E. and Sawhney, Monika and Saylan, Mete I. and Scarborough, Peter and Schoettker, Ben and Schneider, Ione J. C. and Schwebel, David C. and Scott, James G. and Seedat, Soraya and Sepanlou, Sadaf G. and Serdar, Berrin and Servan-Mori, Edson E. and Shackelford, Katya and Shaheen, Amira and Shahraz, Saeid and Levy, Teresa Shamah and Shangguan, Siyi and She, Jun and Sheikhbahaei, Sara and Shepard, Donald S. and Shi, Peilin and Shibuya, Kenji and Shinohara, Yukito and Shiri, Rahman and Shishani, Kawkab and Shiue, Ivy and Shrime, Mark G. and Sigfusdottir, Inga D. and Silberberg, Donald H. and Simard, Edgar P. and Sindi, Shireen and Singh, Jasvinder A. and Singh, Lavanya and Skirbekk, Vegard and Sliwa, Karen and Soljak, Michael and Soneji, Samir and Soshnikov, Sergey S. and Speyer, Peter and Sposato, Luciano A. and Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T. and Stoeckl, Heidi and Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi and Steckling, Nadine and Stein, Murray B. and Stein, Dan J. and Steiner, Timothy J. and Stewart, Andrea and Stork, Eden and Stovner, Lars J. and Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos and Sturua, Lela and Sunguya, Bruno F. and Swaroop, Mamta and Sykes, Bryan L. and Tabb, Karen M. and Takahashi, Ken and Tan, Feng and Tandon, Nikhil and Tanne, David and Tanner, Marcel and Tavakkoli, Mohammad and Taylor, Hugh R. and Ao, Braden J. Te and Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw and Ten Have, Margreet and Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah and Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman and Theadom, Alice M. and Thomas, Elissa and Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L. and Thrift, Amanda G. and Tleyjeh, Imad M. and Tonelli, Marcello and Topouzis, Fotis and Towbin, Jeffrey A. and Toyoshima, Hideaki and Traebert, Jefferson and Tran, Bach X. and Trasande, Leonardo and Trillini, Matias and Truelsen, Thomas and Trujillo, Ulises and Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis and Tuzcu, Emin M. and Ukwaja, Kingsley N. and Undurraga, Eduardo A. and Uzun, Selen B. and van Brakel, Wim H. and de Vijver, Steven van and Van Dingenen, Rita and van Gool, Coen H. and Varakin, Yuri Y. and Vasankari, Tommi J. and Vavilala, Monica S. and Veerman, Lennert J. and Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo and Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy and Vijayakumar, Lakshmi and Villalpando, Salvador and Violante, Francesco S. and Vlassov, Vasiliy V. and Waller, Stephen and Wallin, Mitchell T. and Wan, Xia and Wang, Linhong and Wang, JianLi and Wang, Yanping and Warouw, Tati S. and Weichenthal, Scott and Weiderpass, Elisabete and Weintraub, Robert G. and Werdecker, Andrea and Wessells, K. Ryan R. and Westerman, Ronny and Wilkinson, James D. and Williams, Hywel C. and Williams, Thomas N. and Woldeyohannes, Solomon M. and Wolfe, Charles D. A. and Wong, John Q. and Wong, Haidong and Woolf, Anthony D. and Wright, Jonathan L. and Wurtz, Brittany and Xu, Gelin and Yang, Gonghuan and Yano, Yuichiro and Yenesew, Muluken A. and Yentur, Gokalp K. and Yip, Paul and Yonemoto, Naohiro and Yoon, Seok-Jun and Younis, Mustafa and Yu, Chuanhua and Kim, Kim Yun and Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed and Zhang, Yong and Zhao, Zheng and Zhao, Yong and Zhu, Jun and Zonies, David and Zunt, Joseph R. and Salomon, Joshua A. and Murray, Christopher J. L.},
  issn         = {1474-547X},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9995},
  pages        = {743--800},
  publisher    = {Elsevier Limited},
  series       = {The Lancet},
  title        = {Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4},
  volume       = {386},
  year         = {2015},
}