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The representation of evacuation movement in smoke-filled underground transportation systems

Fridolf, Karl LU ; Ronchi, Enrico LU ; Nilsson, Daniel LU and Frantzich, Håkan LU (2019) In Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 90. p.28-41
Abstract

Limited guidance is available to engineers on how people's walking speed in smoke can and should be represented in the fire safety design process of underground transportation systems, such as road and rail tunnels. To address this issue, the behaviour and movement of people in case of evacuation due to a fire in underground transportation systems has been investigated. In this paper, the relationship between walking speed and visibility conditions has been analysed by performing a systematic review of current experimental research conducted in the field. This includes data-sets collected in Sweden, Japan, UK, Norway, Finland, Canada, and The Netherlands. A design recommendation on how to represent walking speed in both smoke-free and... (More)

Limited guidance is available to engineers on how people's walking speed in smoke can and should be represented in the fire safety design process of underground transportation systems, such as road and rail tunnels. To address this issue, the behaviour and movement of people in case of evacuation due to a fire in underground transportation systems has been investigated. In this paper, the relationship between walking speed and visibility conditions has been analysed by performing a systematic review of current experimental research conducted in the field. This includes data-sets collected in Sweden, Japan, UK, Norway, Finland, Canada, and The Netherlands. A design recommendation on how to represent walking speed in both smoke-free and smoke-filled environments is presented. Uncertainty in data is thoroughly discussed and addressed in the recommendation. Three different methods to represent walking speed during the design of an underground transportation system are suggested. The selection of the method depends on the required treatment of uncertainty in the design. The developed representation substantially differs from existing methods used in fire engineering design to represent walking speed in smoke since it describes walking speed as a function of visibility, rather than the extinction coefficient. This permits comparison of data-sets collected in relationship to the presence of reflecting or emitting lights. Finally, suggestions on future research to be conducted in order to reduce the current uncertainties are provided.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Evacuation, Human behaviour, Smoke, Tunnels, Underground transportation, Walking speed
in
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology
volume
90
pages
14 pages
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:85064940992
ISSN
0886-7798
DOI
10.1016/j.tust.2019.04.016
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
7dfbe8e8-05fc-4da6-ba01-dbf53f089792
date added to LUP
2019-05-13 11:52:51
date last changed
2019-06-30 05:05:33
@article{7dfbe8e8-05fc-4da6-ba01-dbf53f089792,
  abstract     = {<p>Limited guidance is available to engineers on how people's walking speed in smoke can and should be represented in the fire safety design process of underground transportation systems, such as road and rail tunnels. To address this issue, the behaviour and movement of people in case of evacuation due to a fire in underground transportation systems has been investigated. In this paper, the relationship between walking speed and visibility conditions has been analysed by performing a systematic review of current experimental research conducted in the field. This includes data-sets collected in Sweden, Japan, UK, Norway, Finland, Canada, and The Netherlands. A design recommendation on how to represent walking speed in both smoke-free and smoke-filled environments is presented. Uncertainty in data is thoroughly discussed and addressed in the recommendation. Three different methods to represent walking speed during the design of an underground transportation system are suggested. The selection of the method depends on the required treatment of uncertainty in the design. The developed representation substantially differs from existing methods used in fire engineering design to represent walking speed in smoke since it describes walking speed as a function of visibility, rather than the extinction coefficient. This permits comparison of data-sets collected in relationship to the presence of reflecting or emitting lights. Finally, suggestions on future research to be conducted in order to reduce the current uncertainties are provided.</p>},
  author       = {Fridolf, Karl and Ronchi, Enrico and Nilsson, Daniel and Frantzich, Håkan},
  issn         = {0886-7798},
  keyword      = {Evacuation,Human behaviour,Smoke,Tunnels,Underground transportation,Walking speed},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {28--41},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology},
  title        = {The representation of evacuation movement in smoke-filled underground transportation systems},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2019.04.016},
  volume       = {90},
  year         = {2019},
}