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LC-MS-MS Analysis of Urinary Biomarkers of Imazalil Following Experimental Exposures.

Faniband, Moosa LU ; Littorin, Margareta LU ; Ekman, Eva LU ; Jönsson, Bo A LU and Lindh, Christian LU (2015) In Journal of Analytical Toxicology 39(9). p.691-697
Abstract
Imazalil (IMZ) is a fungicide used in the cultivation of vegetables, such as cucumbers, in green houses or post-harvest on fruit to avoid spoilage due to fungal growth. Agricultural workers can be occupationally exposed to IMZ and the general public indirectly by the diet. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an LC-MS-MS method for the analysis of IMZ in human urine. The method used electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring in the positive mode. Excellent linearity was observed in the range 0.5-100 ng/mL. The limit of detection of the method was 0.2 ng/mL, and the limit of quantitation 0.8 ng/mL. The method showed good within-run, between-run and between-batch precision, with a coefficient of variation... (More)
Imazalil (IMZ) is a fungicide used in the cultivation of vegetables, such as cucumbers, in green houses or post-harvest on fruit to avoid spoilage due to fungal growth. Agricultural workers can be occupationally exposed to IMZ and the general public indirectly by the diet. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an LC-MS-MS method for the analysis of IMZ in human urine. The method used electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring in the positive mode. Excellent linearity was observed in the range 0.5-100 ng/mL. The limit of detection of the method was 0.2 ng/mL, and the limit of quantitation 0.8 ng/mL. The method showed good within-run, between-run and between-batch precision, with a coefficient of variation <15%. The method was applied to analyze urine samples obtained from two human volunteers following experimental oral and dermal exposure. The excretion of IMZ seemed to follow a two-compartment model and first-order kinetics. In the oral exposure, the elimination half-life of IMZ in the rapid excretion phase was 2.6 and 1.9 h for the female and the male volunteer, respectively. In the slower excretion phase, it was 7.6 and 13 h, respectively. In the dermal exposure, the excretion seemed to follow a single-compartment model and first-order kinetics. The elimination half-life was 10 and 6.6 h for the female and the male volunteer, respectively. Although the study is limited to two volunteers, some information on basic toxicokinetics and metabolism of IMZ in humans is presented. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Journal of Analytical Toxicology
volume
39
issue
9
pages
691 - 697
publisher
Preston Publications
external identifiers
  • pmid:26324206
  • wos:000365043800003
  • scopus:84949207644
ISSN
1945-2403
DOI
10.1093/jat/bkv100
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
12d4dcf3-6585-4a62-a127-83a9f753c9e5 (old id 8043594)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26324206?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2015-10-07 22:37:21
date last changed
2017-09-24 03:09:54
@article{12d4dcf3-6585-4a62-a127-83a9f753c9e5,
  abstract     = {Imazalil (IMZ) is a fungicide used in the cultivation of vegetables, such as cucumbers, in green houses or post-harvest on fruit to avoid spoilage due to fungal growth. Agricultural workers can be occupationally exposed to IMZ and the general public indirectly by the diet. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an LC-MS-MS method for the analysis of IMZ in human urine. The method used electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring in the positive mode. Excellent linearity was observed in the range 0.5-100 ng/mL. The limit of detection of the method was 0.2 ng/mL, and the limit of quantitation 0.8 ng/mL. The method showed good within-run, between-run and between-batch precision, with a coefficient of variation &lt;15%. The method was applied to analyze urine samples obtained from two human volunteers following experimental oral and dermal exposure. The excretion of IMZ seemed to follow a two-compartment model and first-order kinetics. In the oral exposure, the elimination half-life of IMZ in the rapid excretion phase was 2.6 and 1.9 h for the female and the male volunteer, respectively. In the slower excretion phase, it was 7.6 and 13 h, respectively. In the dermal exposure, the excretion seemed to follow a single-compartment model and first-order kinetics. The elimination half-life was 10 and 6.6 h for the female and the male volunteer, respectively. Although the study is limited to two volunteers, some information on basic toxicokinetics and metabolism of IMZ in humans is presented.},
  author       = {Faniband, Moosa and Littorin, Margareta and Ekman, Eva and Jönsson, Bo A and Lindh, Christian},
  issn         = {1945-2403},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {691--697},
  publisher    = {Preston Publications},
  series       = {Journal of Analytical Toxicology},
  title        = {LC-MS-MS Analysis of Urinary Biomarkers of Imazalil Following Experimental Exposures.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkv100},
  volume       = {39},
  year         = {2015},
}