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From diets to foods: Using linear programming to formulate a nutritious, minimum-cost porridge mix for children aged 1 to 2 years

Carvalho, Irene LU ; Granfeldt, Yvonne LU ; Dejmek, Petr LU and Hakansson, Andreas (2015) In Food and Nutrition Bulletin 36(1). p.75-85
Abstract
Background. Linear programming has been used extensively as a tool for nutritional recommendations. Extending the methodology to food formulation presents new challenges, since not all combinations of nutritious ingredients will produce an acceptable food. Furthermore, it would help in implementation and in ensuring the feasibility of the suggested recommendations. Objective. To extend the previously used linear programming methodology from diet optimization to food formulation using consistency constraints. In addition, to exemplify usability using the case of a porridge mix formulation for emergency situations in rural Mozambique. Methods. The linear programming method was extended with a consistency constraint based on previously... (More)
Background. Linear programming has been used extensively as a tool for nutritional recommendations. Extending the methodology to food formulation presents new challenges, since not all combinations of nutritious ingredients will produce an acceptable food. Furthermore, it would help in implementation and in ensuring the feasibility of the suggested recommendations. Objective. To extend the previously used linear programming methodology from diet optimization to food formulation using consistency constraints. In addition, to exemplify usability using the case of a porridge mix formulation for emergency situations in rural Mozambique. Methods. The linear programming method was extended with a consistency constraint based on previously published empirical studies on swelling of starch in soft porridges. The new method was exemplified using the formulation of a nutritious, minimum-cost porridge mix for children aged 1 to 2 years for use as a complete relief food, based primarily on local ingredients, in rural Mozambique. Results. A nutritious porridge fulfilling the consistency constraints was found; however, the minimum cost was unfeasible with local ingredients only. This illustrates the challenges in formulating nutritious yet economically feasible foods from local ingredients. The high cost was caused by the high cost of mineral-rich foods. A nutritious, low-cost porridge that fulfills the consistency constraints was obtained by including supplements of zinc and calcium salts as ingredients. Conclusions. The optimizations were successful in fulfilling all constraints and provided a feasible porridge, showing that the extended constrained linear programming methodology provides a systematic tool for designing nutritious foods. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Child malnourishment, consistency, emergency nutrition rations, linear, programming, micronutrient inadequacy, Mozambique
in
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
volume
36
issue
1
pages
75 - 85
publisher
SAGE Publications Inc.
external identifiers
  • wos:000361183700007
  • scopus:84926635226
ISSN
0379-5721
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
d0854681-975b-4f7d-8a3e-6d1e6c608563 (old id 8074146)
alternative location
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/nsinf/fnb/2015/00000036/00000001/art00007?token=004b10897b76504c486667707b3a4a6c7b3142767c6a332b25757d5c4f6d4e227a46f890e5d#expand/collapse
date added to LUP
2015-10-22 14:49:38
date last changed
2017-06-11 04:13:36
@article{d0854681-975b-4f7d-8a3e-6d1e6c608563,
  abstract     = {Background. Linear programming has been used extensively as a tool for nutritional recommendations. Extending the methodology to food formulation presents new challenges, since not all combinations of nutritious ingredients will produce an acceptable food. Furthermore, it would help in implementation and in ensuring the feasibility of the suggested recommendations. Objective. To extend the previously used linear programming methodology from diet optimization to food formulation using consistency constraints. In addition, to exemplify usability using the case of a porridge mix formulation for emergency situations in rural Mozambique. Methods. The linear programming method was extended with a consistency constraint based on previously published empirical studies on swelling of starch in soft porridges. The new method was exemplified using the formulation of a nutritious, minimum-cost porridge mix for children aged 1 to 2 years for use as a complete relief food, based primarily on local ingredients, in rural Mozambique. Results. A nutritious porridge fulfilling the consistency constraints was found; however, the minimum cost was unfeasible with local ingredients only. This illustrates the challenges in formulating nutritious yet economically feasible foods from local ingredients. The high cost was caused by the high cost of mineral-rich foods. A nutritious, low-cost porridge that fulfills the consistency constraints was obtained by including supplements of zinc and calcium salts as ingredients. Conclusions. The optimizations were successful in fulfilling all constraints and provided a feasible porridge, showing that the extended constrained linear programming methodology provides a systematic tool for designing nutritious foods.},
  author       = {Carvalho, Irene and Granfeldt, Yvonne and Dejmek, Petr and Hakansson, Andreas},
  issn         = {0379-5721},
  keyword      = {Child malnourishment,consistency,emergency nutrition rations,linear,programming,micronutrient inadequacy,Mozambique},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {75--85},
  publisher    = {SAGE Publications Inc.},
  series       = {Food and Nutrition Bulletin},
  title        = {From diets to foods: Using linear programming to formulate a nutritious, minimum-cost porridge mix for children aged 1 to 2 years},
  volume       = {36},
  year         = {2015},
}