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International actors in environmental peacebuilding : a manifestation of neo-colonialism or practices of pragmatism?

Sjöstedt, Britta LU (2017) International Law in a Dark Time
Abstract
In this paper, I explore the practice of environmental management by international actors in institutionally weak states transitioning from peace to conflict (post-conflict) to analyse how these actors may fill an institutional and legal gap. This is of interest as it moves the governance of the environment in the post-conflict states from a domestic to an international level. In post-conflict states, peacebuilding activities are supposed to rebuild the society by establishing robust states able to prevent the reoccurring of hostilities. However, the peacebuilding activities can have an opposite effect. In regard to the armed conflicts taking place in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the World Heritage Convention (WHC) has been... (More)
In this paper, I explore the practice of environmental management by international actors in institutionally weak states transitioning from peace to conflict (post-conflict) to analyse how these actors may fill an institutional and legal gap. This is of interest as it moves the governance of the environment in the post-conflict states from a domestic to an international level. In post-conflict states, peacebuilding activities are supposed to rebuild the society by establishing robust states able to prevent the reoccurring of hostilities. However, the peacebuilding activities can have an opposite effect. In regard to the armed conflicts taking place in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the World Heritage Convention (WHC) has been applied to guide international state aid, international organisations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other actors in the restoration and reinforcement of the environmental protection of the Congolese world heritage sites that were adversely affected by the conflicts. The WHC contributed to attract and direct actors of the international community to engage in and provide funding for the protection of the sites in the DRC. Currently, all the world heritage sites are more or less managed and funded by foreign and international actors (for instance the UNESCO, European Commission, World Wildlife Fund, the German Aid organization GIZ, African Development Foundation) often through private-public partnerships with little involvement of the national state organs. Thus, the capacity building provided for conserving the Congolese world heritage sites appears not to contribute to stronger national institutions or rebuilding of the state. In fact, the management of the world heritage sites by foreign actors could be viewed as a form of neo-colonialism to get the control over the environment and its resources. This raises some questions. For instance, is the suggested capacity building to post-conflict states in reality ‘capacity demolishing’ as it creates a system of dependence on foreign aid? On the other hand, the Congolese government and its state organs suffer from corruption. Consequently, it may be in the donors’ interest to keep the Congolese organs away from the foreign aid to ensure effective the management of the sites. In this paper, I want to shed some light on how the environmental treaties such as the WHC can be invoked to govern the environment in a manner that may retain post-conflict states under the dictates of international actors with limited influence over their own natural resources. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to conference
publication status
unpublished
subject
keywords
Public international law, environmental law, Folkrätt, miljörätt
conference name
International Law in a Dark Time
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
808dcae9-96e7-4cb1-93ac-b09a3811f664
date added to LUP
2017-06-13 14:22:50
date last changed
2017-06-19 13:04:31
@misc{808dcae9-96e7-4cb1-93ac-b09a3811f664,
  abstract     = {In this paper, I explore the practice of environmental management by international actors in institutionally weak states transitioning from peace to conflict (post-conflict) to analyse how these actors may fill an institutional and legal gap. This is of interest as it moves the governance of the environment in the post-conflict states from a domestic to an international level. In post-conflict states, peacebuilding activities are supposed to rebuild the society by establishing robust states able to prevent the reoccurring of hostilities. However, the peacebuilding activities can have an opposite effect. In regard to the armed conflicts taking place in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the World Heritage Convention (WHC) has been applied to guide international state aid, international organisations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other actors in the restoration and reinforcement of the environmental protection of the Congolese world heritage sites that were adversely affected by the conflicts. The WHC contributed to attract and direct actors of the international community to engage in and provide funding for the protection of the sites in the DRC. Currently, all the world heritage sites are more or less managed and funded by foreign and international actors (for instance the UNESCO, European Commission, World Wildlife Fund, the German Aid organization GIZ, African Development Foundation) often through private-public partnerships with little involvement of the national state organs. Thus, the capacity building provided for conserving the Congolese world heritage sites appears not to contribute to stronger national institutions or rebuilding of the state. In fact, the management of the world heritage sites by foreign actors could be viewed as a form of neo-colonialism to get the control over the environment and its resources. This raises some questions. For instance, is the suggested capacity building to post-conflict states in reality ‘capacity demolishing’ as it creates a system of dependence on foreign aid? On the other hand, the Congolese government and its state organs suffer from corruption. Consequently, it may be in the donors’ interest to keep the Congolese organs away from the foreign aid to ensure effective the management of the sites. In this paper, I want to shed some light on how the environmental treaties such as the WHC can be invoked to govern the environment in a manner that may retain post-conflict states under the dictates of international actors with limited influence over their own natural resources. },
  author       = {Sjöstedt, Britta},
  keyword      = {Public international law,environmental law,Folkrätt,miljörätt},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {International actors in environmental peacebuilding : a manifestation of neo-colonialism or practices of pragmatism?},
  year         = {2017},
}