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Focal, but not global, cerebral ischaemia causes loss of myenteric neurons and upregulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide in mouse ileum

Cheng, Xiaowen LU ; Svensson, Martina LU ; Yang, Yiyi LU ; Deierborg, Tomas LU ; Ekblad, Eva LU and Voss, Ulrikke LU (2018) In International Journal of Experimental Pathology 99(1). p.38-45
Abstract

Reduced blood flow to the brain induces cerebral ischaemia, potentially causing central injury and peripheral complications including gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. The pathophysiology behind GI symptoms is suspected to be neuropathy in the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is essential in regulating GI function. This study investigates if enteric neuropathy occurs after cerebral ischaemia, by analysing neuronal survival and relative numbers of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expressing neurons in mouse ileum after three types of cerebral ischaemia. Focal cerebral ischaemia, modelled by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and global cerebral ischaemia, modelled with... (More)

Reduced blood flow to the brain induces cerebral ischaemia, potentially causing central injury and peripheral complications including gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. The pathophysiology behind GI symptoms is suspected to be neuropathy in the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is essential in regulating GI function. This study investigates if enteric neuropathy occurs after cerebral ischaemia, by analysing neuronal survival and relative numbers of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expressing neurons in mouse ileum after three types of cerebral ischaemia. Focal cerebral ischaemia, modelled by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and global cerebral ischaemia, modelled with either transient occlusion of both common carotid arteries followed by reperfusion (GCIR) or chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) was performed on C56BL/6 mice. Sham-operated mice for each ischaemia model served as control. Ileum was collected after 1–17 weeks, depending on model, and analysed using morphometry and immunocytochemistry. For each group, intestinal mucosa and muscle layer thicknesses, neuronal numbers and relative proportions of neurons immunoreactive (IR) for nNOS or VIP were estimated. No alterations in mucosa or muscle layer thicknesses were noted in any of the groups. Loss of myenteric neurons and an increased number of VIP-IR submucous neurons were found in mouse ileum 7 days after pMCAO. None of the global ischaemia models showed any alterations in neuronal survival or relative numbers of VIP- and nNOS-IR neurons. We conclude that focal cerebral ischaemia and global cerebral ischaemia influence enteric neuronal survival differently. This is suggested to reflect differences in peripheral neuro-immune responses.

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organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
enteric nervous system, focal cerebral ischaemia, global cerebral ischaemia, nitric oxide synthase, vasoactive intestinal peptide
in
International Journal of Experimental Pathology
volume
99
issue
1
pages
8 pages
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • scopus:85045933341
ISSN
0959-9673
DOI
10.1111/iep.12263
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
8366f86f-914f-4790-9a88-81c7652d5451
date added to LUP
2018-05-04 12:14:46
date last changed
2018-05-29 10:56:03
@article{8366f86f-914f-4790-9a88-81c7652d5451,
  abstract     = {<p>Reduced blood flow to the brain induces cerebral ischaemia, potentially causing central injury and peripheral complications including gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. The pathophysiology behind GI symptoms is suspected to be neuropathy in the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is essential in regulating GI function. This study investigates if enteric neuropathy occurs after cerebral ischaemia, by analysing neuronal survival and relative numbers of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expressing neurons in mouse ileum after three types of cerebral ischaemia. Focal cerebral ischaemia, modelled by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and global cerebral ischaemia, modelled with either transient occlusion of both common carotid arteries followed by reperfusion (GCIR) or chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) was performed on C56BL/6 mice. Sham-operated mice for each ischaemia model served as control. Ileum was collected after 1–17 weeks, depending on model, and analysed using morphometry and immunocytochemistry. For each group, intestinal mucosa and muscle layer thicknesses, neuronal numbers and relative proportions of neurons immunoreactive (IR) for nNOS or VIP were estimated. No alterations in mucosa or muscle layer thicknesses were noted in any of the groups. Loss of myenteric neurons and an increased number of VIP-IR submucous neurons were found in mouse ileum 7 days after pMCAO. None of the global ischaemia models showed any alterations in neuronal survival or relative numbers of VIP- and nNOS-IR neurons. We conclude that focal cerebral ischaemia and global cerebral ischaemia influence enteric neuronal survival differently. This is suggested to reflect differences in peripheral neuro-immune responses.</p>},
  author       = {Cheng, Xiaowen and Svensson, Martina and Yang, Yiyi and Deierborg, Tomas and Ekblad, Eva and Voss, Ulrikke},
  issn         = {0959-9673},
  keyword      = {enteric nervous system,focal cerebral ischaemia,global cerebral ischaemia,nitric oxide synthase,vasoactive intestinal peptide},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {02},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {38--45},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {International Journal of Experimental Pathology},
  title        = {Focal, but not global, cerebral ischaemia causes loss of myenteric neurons and upregulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide in mouse ileum},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iep.12263},
  volume       = {99},
  year         = {2018},
}