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Movement speed and exit choice in smoke-filled rail tunnels

Fridolf, Karl LU ; Ronchi, Enrico LU ; Nilsson, Daniel LU and Frantzich, Håkan LU (2013) In Fire Safety Journal 59. p.8-21
Abstract
An evacuation experiment including 100 individuals was performed inside a tunnel in order to study the effectiveness of different way-finding installations and to collect data on movement speeds and human behaviour. The participants took part in the experiment individually, and no group interactions were studied. The experiment tunnel was 200 m long and an emergency exit was located 180 m into the tunnel. In addition, emergency signs including distances to nearest exits were located every eight meters on both sides of the tunnel. The tunnel was filled with artificial smoke and acetic acid, which produced a mean light extinction coefficient of 2.2 m−1. Participants had been told that they would participate in an evacuation experiment, but... (More)
An evacuation experiment including 100 individuals was performed inside a tunnel in order to study the effectiveness of different way-finding installations and to collect data on movement speeds and human behaviour. The participants took part in the experiment individually, and no group interactions were studied. The experiment tunnel was 200 m long and an emergency exit was located 180 m into the tunnel. In addition, emergency signs including distances to nearest exits were located every eight meters on both sides of the tunnel. The tunnel was filled with artificial smoke and acetic acid, which produced a mean light extinction coefficient of 2.2 m−1. Participants had been told that they would participate in an evacuation experiment, but they had not been informed about the layout of the tunnel or the technical installations. The average movement speed was found to be approximately 0.9 m/s, independent of tunnel floor material examined. The experiment also demonstrated the importance of the emergency exit design. A loudspeaker, which provided people with an alarm signal and a pre-recorded voice message, was found to perform particular well in terms of attracting people to the exit, independent of which side of the tunnel the participants were following. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Evacuation experiment, Smoke filled tunnel, Movement speed, Exit choice, Human behaviour, Walking path
in
Fire Safety Journal
volume
59
pages
8 - 21
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000321178900002
  • scopus:84876889938
ISSN
0379-7112
DOI
10.1016/j.firesaf.2013.03.007
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
84f69efb-9a14-4144-8c22-32a115ccf77a (old id 3634246)
alternative location
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0379711213000660
date added to LUP
2013-04-19 09:36:44
date last changed
2019-09-04 02:33:20
@article{84f69efb-9a14-4144-8c22-32a115ccf77a,
  abstract     = {An evacuation experiment including 100 individuals was performed inside a tunnel in order to study the effectiveness of different way-finding installations and to collect data on movement speeds and human behaviour. The participants took part in the experiment individually, and no group interactions were studied. The experiment tunnel was 200 m long and an emergency exit was located 180 m into the tunnel. In addition, emergency signs including distances to nearest exits were located every eight meters on both sides of the tunnel. The tunnel was filled with artificial smoke and acetic acid, which produced a mean light extinction coefficient of 2.2 m−1. Participants had been told that they would participate in an evacuation experiment, but they had not been informed about the layout of the tunnel or the technical installations. The average movement speed was found to be approximately 0.9 m/s, independent of tunnel floor material examined. The experiment also demonstrated the importance of the emergency exit design. A loudspeaker, which provided people with an alarm signal and a pre-recorded voice message, was found to perform particular well in terms of attracting people to the exit, independent of which side of the tunnel the participants were following.},
  author       = {Fridolf, Karl and Ronchi, Enrico and Nilsson, Daniel and Frantzich, Håkan},
  issn         = {0379-7112},
  keyword      = {Evacuation experiment,Smoke filled tunnel,Movement speed,Exit choice,Human behaviour,Walking path},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {8--21},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Fire Safety Journal},
  title        = {Movement speed and exit choice in smoke-filled rail tunnels},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2013.03.007},
  volume       = {59},
  year         = {2013},
}