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Lighting Control Systems for Energy Saving and User Acceptance: State-of-the-art and future directions

Gentile, Niko LU (2015)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Belysning står för en femtedel av den globala elanvändningen. I Sverige motsvarar efterfrågan på energi för belysning i kontorsbyggnader 20% av den totala elanvändningen.

Utbyte av gamla belysningsanläggningar anses vara bland de mest kostnadseffektiva sätten att minska energianvändningen i byggnader. I synnerhet utlovar användningen av avancerade ljusstyrningssystem energibesparingar på mellan 2 och 60%, men systemfel och låg användaracceptans har hittills begränsat besparingsmöjligheterna.



Denna avhandling har genom litteratur- och fältstudier undersökt effekten av ljusstyrningssystem på energianvändning och användaracceptans. I den första delen av avhandlingen visar... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Belysning står för en femtedel av den globala elanvändningen. I Sverige motsvarar efterfrågan på energi för belysning i kontorsbyggnader 20% av den totala elanvändningen.

Utbyte av gamla belysningsanläggningar anses vara bland de mest kostnadseffektiva sätten att minska energianvändningen i byggnader. I synnerhet utlovar användningen av avancerade ljusstyrningssystem energibesparingar på mellan 2 och 60%, men systemfel och låg användaracceptans har hittills begränsat besparingsmöjligheterna.



Denna avhandling har genom litteratur- och fältstudier undersökt effekten av ljusstyrningssystem på energianvändning och användaracceptans. I den första delen av avhandlingen visar en litteraturgenomgång på ljusstyrningssystem att manuellt styrda system är i allmänhet mer accepterade av användarna. System med hög automatisering och utan möjlighet till manuell omställning tenderar att deaktiveras eller saboteras. Därför spelar användarbeteendet en avgörande roll för att säkerställa god funktion och faktisk energibesparing av ljusstyrningssystem. Genomgången visar också att närvaro- och frånvarostyrning ofta förs samman under en övergripande kategori kallad ”brukarstrategi”, även om de gav mycket olika energibesparing. Genomgången av dagsljuskontrollsystem framhäver kritiska frågor rörande design och drift.



Två fältstudier i cellkontor genomfördes. Frånvaro- och närvarodetektering, dagsljusstyrning och enbart platsbelysning testades i en verklig arbetsmiljö, där energianvändning och användaracceptans undersöktes. Studierna visar att definitionen ”brukarstrategi” inte är helt lämplig eftersom frånvaro- och närvarodetektering uppvisar olika energibesparing och användaracceptans. Den andra fältstudien visar att dagsljusstyrningssystem kan fungera bra under förutsättning att noggrann design och drift genomförs tillsammans med möjligheten till manuell styrning. Fältstudien visar emellertid att användningen av sensorer och mikro-kontroller ökade energianvändningen för parasitisk ström (standby), vilket kan vara viktigt i relation till slutlig energianvändning, speciellt i miljöer med låg närvaro och högeffektiva ljuskällor.



Ljusstyrningssystem som bygger på trådlösa nätverk och integrering i byggnadens totala styrsystem väntas öka under de kommande åren. Detta kommer att hantera många av de aktuella frågor som tagit upp här med avancerade ljusstyrningssystem, men det kommer också att ställa krav på ytterligare kompetens hos ansvariga designers och installatörer. Under tiden är brukarstrategier ett bra alternativ som ersättning för gamla belysningssystem för att erhålla energieffektiv belysning. (Less)
Abstract
Lighting accounts for one-fifth of global electricity use. In Sweden, energy demand for lighting corresponds to 20% of the total electricity use in office buildings. Lighting retrofit measures are considered to be among the most cost-efficient way to reduce energy use in buildings. In particular, the use of advanced lighting control systems promises energy savings of between 2 and 60%, but system failures and poor user acceptance have been significant limitations so far.

This thesis uses literature reviews and field studies to investigate the effect of lighting control systems on energy use and user acceptance. In the first part of the thesis, an extensive literature review on lighting control systems indicates that manually... (More)
Lighting accounts for one-fifth of global electricity use. In Sweden, energy demand for lighting corresponds to 20% of the total electricity use in office buildings. Lighting retrofit measures are considered to be among the most cost-efficient way to reduce energy use in buildings. In particular, the use of advanced lighting control systems promises energy savings of between 2 and 60%, but system failures and poor user acceptance have been significant limitations so far.

This thesis uses literature reviews and field studies to investigate the effect of lighting control systems on energy use and user acceptance. In the first part of the thesis, an extensive literature review on lighting control systems indicates that manually controlled systems are generally more accepted by the users. Systems with high automation and no manual override tend to be deactivated or even sabotaged. Consequently, user behavior plays a fundamental role in ensuring proper function and actual energy savings of the lighting control system. The review also showed that presence and absence detection are often combined under the overarching category ‘occupancy strategies’, although they yield very different energy savings. The review of daylight harvesting systems highlighted critical issues relating to design and commissioning.

Two field studies in individual offices were conducted. Absence and presence detection, daylight harvesting and a simple task light were tested in a real-life work environment, where energy use and user acceptance were monitored. The studies showed that the definition ‘occupancy strategies’ is not completely appropriate, since ‘absence’ and ‘presence’ detection yield different energy savings and user acceptance. The second field study showed that daylight harvesting systems could perform well, on condition that careful design and commissioning are performed along with provision of a manual override. However, the field study showed that the use of sensors and microcontrollers raised the energy demand for parasitic power (standby), which might be significant in relation to final energy use, especially with low occupancy rates and high-efficiency light sources.

Lighting control systems based on wireless networks and integrated in the building management system are expected to increase during the coming years. This will overcome many of the current issues with advanced lighting control systems, but it will also require additional skills on the part of the designer and installer. In the meantime, occupancy strategies represent a good alternative in energy-efficient lighting retrofit. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Indoor lighting, lighting control system, lighting control, energy saving, energy efficiency, user acceptance, human factor, occupancy strategies, absence sensor, presence sensor, lighting switch, manual switch, daylight harvesting system, daylight-linked system, photoelectric dimming, photosensor.
pages
170 pages
publisher
Lund University, Faculty of Engineering
ISBN
978-91-85147-60-1
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
c6689e2c-096d-4afe-b5b9-8498bdda945f (old id 8520270)
date added to LUP
2016-02-10 13:53:11
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:48
@misc{c6689e2c-096d-4afe-b5b9-8498bdda945f,
  abstract     = {Lighting accounts for one-fifth of global electricity use. In Sweden, energy demand for lighting corresponds to 20% of the total electricity use in office buildings. Lighting retrofit measures are considered to be among the most cost-efficient way to reduce energy use in buildings. In particular, the use of advanced lighting control systems promises energy savings of between 2 and 60%, but system failures and poor user acceptance have been significant limitations so far. <br/><br>
This thesis uses literature reviews and field studies to investigate the effect of lighting control systems on energy use and user acceptance. In the first part of the thesis, an extensive literature review on lighting control systems indicates that manually controlled systems are generally more accepted by the users. Systems with high automation and no manual override tend to be deactivated or even sabotaged. Consequently, user behavior plays a fundamental role in ensuring proper function and actual energy savings of the lighting control system. The review also showed that presence and absence detection are often combined under the overarching category ‘occupancy strategies’, although they yield very different energy savings. The review of daylight harvesting systems highlighted critical issues relating to design and commissioning.<br/><br>
Two field studies in individual offices were conducted. Absence and presence detection, daylight harvesting and a simple task light were tested in a real-life work environment, where energy use and user acceptance were monitored. The studies showed that the definition ‘occupancy strategies’ is not completely appropriate, since ‘absence’ and ‘presence’ detection yield different energy savings and user acceptance. The second field study showed that daylight harvesting systems could perform well, on condition that careful design and commissioning are performed along with provision of a manual override. However, the field study showed that the use of sensors and microcontrollers raised the energy demand for parasitic power (standby), which might be significant in relation to final energy use, especially with low occupancy rates and high-efficiency light sources. <br/><br>
Lighting control systems based on wireless networks and integrated in the building management system are expected to increase during the coming years. This will overcome many of the current issues with advanced lighting control systems, but it will also require additional skills on the part of the designer and installer. In the meantime, occupancy strategies represent a good alternative in energy-efficient lighting retrofit.},
  author       = {Gentile, Niko},
  isbn         = {978-91-85147-60-1},
  keyword      = {Indoor lighting,lighting control system,lighting control,energy saving,energy efficiency,user acceptance,human factor,occupancy strategies,absence sensor,presence sensor,lighting switch,manual switch,daylight harvesting system,daylight-linked system,photoelectric dimming,photosensor.},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Licentiate Thesis},
  pages        = {170},
  publisher    = {Lund University, Faculty of Engineering},
  title        = {Lighting Control Systems for Energy Saving and User Acceptance: State-of-the-art and future directions},
  year         = {2015},
}