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Energetic consequenses of an inducible morphological defence in crucian carp

Pettersson, Lars LU and Brönmark, Christer LU (1999) In Oecologia 121(1). p.12-18
Abstract
Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) increases in

body depth in response to chemical cues from piscivores

and the deeper body constitutes a morphological defence

against gape-limited piscivores. In the ®eld, deep-bodied

individuals su€er a density-dependent cost when com-

peting with shallow-bodied conspeci®cs. Here, we use

hydrodynamic theory and swimming respirometry to

investigate the proposed mechanism underlying this ef-

fect, high drag caused by the deep-bodied morphology.

Our study con®rms that drag is higher for deep-bodied

crucian carp, both in terms of estimated theoretical drag

and power curve steepness. However, deep-bodied... (More)
Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) increases in

body depth in response to chemical cues from piscivores

and the deeper body constitutes a morphological defence

against gape-limited piscivores. In the ®eld, deep-bodied

individuals su€er a density-dependent cost when com-

peting with shallow-bodied conspeci®cs. Here, we use

hydrodynamic theory and swimming respirometry to

investigate the proposed mechanism underlying this ef-

fect, high drag caused by the deep-bodied morphology.

Our study con®rms that drag is higher for deep-bodied

crucian carp, both in terms of estimated theoretical drag

and power curve steepness. However, deep-bodied ®sh

swimming at the velocity associated with minimum cost

of transport, Umc, did not experience higher costs of

transport than shallow-bodied ®sh. Deep-bodied crucian

carp had signi®cantly lower standard metabolic rates,

i.e. metabolic rates at rest, and also lower Umc, and the

resulting costs of transport were similar for the two

morphs. Nevertheless, when deep-bodied individuals

deviate from Umc, e.g. when increasing foraging e€ort

under competition, their steeper power curves will cause

substantial energy costs relative to shallow-bodied con-

speci®cs. Furthermore, there is evidence that reductions

in standard metabolic rate incur costs in terms of lower

stress tolerance, reduced growth rate, and life history

changes. Thus, this work provides links between hy-

drodynamics, a cost-reducing mechanism, and a density-

dependent ®tness cost associated with an inducible

defence. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Phenotypic plasticity á Carassius carassius á Respirometry á Cost of transport á Predation
in
Oecologia
volume
121
issue
1
pages
12 - 18
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • scopus:0344931740
ISSN
1432-1939
DOI
10.1007/s004420050901
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f4f63f23-d008-440e-8724-2aeec37aebde (old id 942190)
date added to LUP
2008-01-22 13:55:01
date last changed
2017-02-05 03:28:31
@article{f4f63f23-d008-440e-8724-2aeec37aebde,
  abstract     = {Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) increases in<br/><br>
body depth in response to chemical cues from piscivores<br/><br>
and the deeper body constitutes a morphological defence<br/><br>
against gape-limited piscivores. In the ®eld, deep-bodied<br/><br>
individuals su€er a density-dependent cost when com-<br/><br>
peting with shallow-bodied conspeci®cs. Here, we use<br/><br>
hydrodynamic theory and swimming respirometry to<br/><br>
investigate the proposed mechanism underlying this ef-<br/><br>
fect, high drag caused by the deep-bodied morphology.<br/><br>
Our study con®rms that drag is higher for deep-bodied<br/><br>
crucian carp, both in terms of estimated theoretical drag<br/><br>
and power curve steepness. However, deep-bodied ®sh<br/><br>
swimming at the velocity associated with minimum cost<br/><br>
of transport, Umc, did not experience higher costs of<br/><br>
transport than shallow-bodied ®sh. Deep-bodied crucian<br/><br>
carp had signi®cantly lower standard metabolic rates,<br/><br>
i.e. metabolic rates at rest, and also lower Umc, and the<br/><br>
resulting costs of transport were similar for the two<br/><br>
morphs. Nevertheless, when deep-bodied individuals<br/><br>
deviate from Umc, e.g. when increasing foraging e€ort<br/><br>
under competition, their steeper power curves will cause<br/><br>
substantial energy costs relative to shallow-bodied con-<br/><br>
speci®cs. Furthermore, there is evidence that reductions<br/><br>
in standard metabolic rate incur costs in terms of lower<br/><br>
stress tolerance, reduced growth rate, and life history<br/><br>
changes. Thus, this work provides links between hy-<br/><br>
drodynamics, a cost-reducing mechanism, and a density-<br/><br>
dependent ®tness cost associated with an inducible<br/><br>
defence.},
  author       = {Pettersson, Lars and Brönmark, Christer},
  issn         = {1432-1939},
  keyword      = {Phenotypic plasticity á Carassius
carassius á Respirometry á Cost of transport á Predation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {12--18},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Oecologia},
  title        = {Energetic consequenses of an inducible morphological defence in crucian carp},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004420050901},
  volume       = {121},
  year         = {1999},
}