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Heavy metals exposure levels and their correlation with different clinical forms of fetal growth restriction

Sabra, Sally; Malmqvist, Ebba LU ; Saborit, Alicia; Gratacós, Eduard and Gomez Roig, Maria Dolores (2017) In PLoS ONE 12(10).
Abstract

Background: Prenatal heavy metals exposure has shown a negative impact on birth weight. However, their influence on different clinical forms of fetal smallness was never assessed. Objectives: To investigate whether there is a differential association between heavy metals exposure and fetal smallness subclassification into intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small-for-gestational age (SGA). Method: In this prospective case-control study, we included 178 mother–infant pairs; 96 of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 82 of small fetuses diagnosed in third trimester. The small ones were further subclassified into IUGR, n = 49 and SGA, n = 33. Cadmium (Cd),... (More)

Background: Prenatal heavy metals exposure has shown a negative impact on birth weight. However, their influence on different clinical forms of fetal smallness was never assessed. Objectives: To investigate whether there is a differential association between heavy metals exposure and fetal smallness subclassification into intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small-for-gestational age (SGA). Method: In this prospective case-control study, we included 178 mother–infant pairs; 96 of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 82 of small fetuses diagnosed in third trimester. The small ones were further subclassified into IUGR, n = 49 and SGA, n = 33. Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and zinc (Zn) levels were measured in the maternal and cord serum, and in the placentas of the three groups. Results: Maternal serum level of Cd (p<0.001) was higher in the small fetuses compared to AGA. Fetal serum level of Cd (p<0.001) was increased in the small fetuses compared to AGA. Fetal serum level of Hg (p<0.05) showed an increase in SGA compared to both IUGR and AGA. Fetal serum level of Zn was increased in the AGA (p < 0.001) compared to each of the small fetuses groups. Only differences in the levels between the small fetuses’ subgroups were detected in the fetal serum levels of Cd and Hg. Fetal birth weight was negatively correlated with the fetal serum level of Cd (p < 0.001). No differences in the placental heavy metal levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion: Fetal serum levels of Cd showed differential correlation between small fetuses’ clinical subclassification, which together with the increased Cd levels in both maternal and fetal serum of the small fetuses reinforce the negative influence of heavy metals on birth weight. These findings provide more opportunities to verify the role of heavy metals exposure in relation to small fetuses’ subclassification.

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published
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in
PLoS ONE
volume
12
issue
10
publisher
Public Library of Science
external identifiers
  • scopus:85030691609
  • wos:000412493000007
ISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0185645
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
c4cff784-de01-4457-a2d1-c10a02b40908
date added to LUP
2017-10-16 12:44:53
date last changed
2018-01-16 13:23:14
@article{c4cff784-de01-4457-a2d1-c10a02b40908,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Prenatal heavy metals exposure has shown a negative impact on birth weight.      However,      their influence on different clinical forms of fetal smallness was never      assessed.      Objectives: To investigate whether there is a differential association between      heavy      metals exposure and fetal smallness subclassification into intrauterine growth      restriction      (IUGR) and small-for-gestational age (SGA). Method: In this prospective      case-control      study, we included 178 mother–infant pairs; 96 of appropriate for gestational      age      (AGA) and 82 of small fetuses diagnosed in third trimester. The small ones were      further      subclassified into IUGR, n = 49 and SGA, n = 33. Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg),      lead      (Pb), arsenic (As) and zinc (Zn) levels were measured in the maternal and cord      serum,      and in the placentas of the three groups. Results: Maternal serum level of      Cd      (p&lt;0.001) was higher in the small fetuses compared to AGA. Fetal serum level      of      Cd (p&lt;0.001) was increased in the small fetuses compared to AGA. Fetal serum      level      of Hg (p&lt;0.05) showed an increase in SGA compared to both IUGR and AGA.      Fetal      serum level of Zn was increased in the AGA (p &lt; 0.001) compared to each      of      the small fetuses groups. Only differences in the levels between the small fetuses’      subgroups      were detected in the fetal serum levels of Cd and Hg. Fetal birth weight      was      negatively correlated      with the fetal serum level of Cd (p &lt; 0.001). No differences in the      placental      heavy metal levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion: Fetal serum      levels      of Cd showed differential correlation between small fetuses’ clinical subclassification,      which      together with the increased Cd levels in both maternal and fetal serum of the      small      fetuses reinforce the negative influence of heavy metals on birth weight. These      findings      provide more opportunities to verify the role of heavy metals exposure in      relation      to small fetuses’ subclassification.</p>},
  articleno    = {e0185645},
  author       = {Sabra, Sally and Malmqvist, Ebba and Saborit, Alicia and Gratacós, Eduard and Gomez Roig, Maria Dolores},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {10},
  number       = {10},
  publisher    = {Public Library of Science},
  series       = {PLoS ONE},
  title        = {Heavy metals exposure levels and their correlation with different clinical forms of fetal growth restriction},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185645},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2017},
}