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Epilepsy and optogenetics : Can seizures be controlled by light?

Tönnesen, Jan LU and Kokaia, Merab LU (2017) In Clinical Science 131(14). p.1605-1616
Abstract

Over the past decade, 'optogenetics' has been consolidated as a game-changing tool in the neuroscience field, by allowing optical control of neuronal activity with high cell-type specificity. The ability to activate or inhibit targeted neurons at millisecond resolution not only offers an investigative tool, but potentially also provides a therapeutic intervention strategy for acute correction of aberrant neuronal activity. As efficient therapeutic tools are in short supply for neurological disorders, optogenetic technology has therefore spurred considerable enthusiasm and fostered a new wave of translational studies in neuroscience. Epilepsy is among the disorders that have been widely explored. Partial epilepsies are characterized by... (More)

Over the past decade, 'optogenetics' has been consolidated as a game-changing tool in the neuroscience field, by allowing optical control of neuronal activity with high cell-type specificity. The ability to activate or inhibit targeted neurons at millisecond resolution not only offers an investigative tool, but potentially also provides a therapeutic intervention strategy for acute correction of aberrant neuronal activity. As efficient therapeutic tools are in short supply for neurological disorders, optogenetic technology has therefore spurred considerable enthusiasm and fostered a new wave of translational studies in neuroscience. Epilepsy is among the disorders that have been widely explored. Partial epilepsies are characterized by seizures arising from excessive excitatory neuronal activity that emerges from a focal area. Based on the constricted seizure focus, it appears feasible to intercept partial seizures by acutely shutting down excitatory neurons by means of optogenetics. The availability of both inhibitory and excitatory optogenetic probes, along with the available targeting strategies for respective excitatory or inhibitory neurons, allows multiple conceivable scenarios for controlling abnormal circuit activity. Several such scenarios have been explored in the settings of experimental epilepsy and have provided encouraging translational findings and revealed interesting and unexpected new aspects of epileptogenesis. However, it has also emerged that considerable challenges persist before clinical translation becomes feasible. This review provides a general introduction to optogenetics, and an overview of findings that are relevant for understanding how optogenetics may be utilized therapeutically as a highly innovative treatment for epilepsy.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Clinical Science
volume
131
issue
14
pages
12 pages
publisher
Portland Press
external identifiers
  • scopus:85021854883
  • wos:000405990000005
ISSN
0143-5221
DOI
10.1042/CS20160492
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f54a88d8-f55b-4cbf-8168-a653c9d686af
date added to LUP
2017-07-26 11:12:31
date last changed
2017-09-18 11:39:42
@article{f54a88d8-f55b-4cbf-8168-a653c9d686af,
  abstract     = {<p>Over the past decade, 'optogenetics' has been consolidated as a game-changing tool in the neuroscience field, by allowing optical control of neuronal activity with high cell-type specificity. The ability to activate or inhibit targeted neurons at millisecond resolution not only offers an investigative tool, but potentially also provides a therapeutic intervention strategy for acute correction of aberrant neuronal activity. As efficient therapeutic tools are in short supply for neurological disorders, optogenetic technology has therefore spurred considerable enthusiasm and fostered a new wave of translational studies in neuroscience. Epilepsy is among the disorders that have been widely explored. Partial epilepsies are characterized by seizures arising from excessive excitatory neuronal activity that emerges from a focal area. Based on the constricted seizure focus, it appears feasible to intercept partial seizures by acutely shutting down excitatory neurons by means of optogenetics. The availability of both inhibitory and excitatory optogenetic probes, along with the available targeting strategies for respective excitatory or inhibitory neurons, allows multiple conceivable scenarios for controlling abnormal circuit activity. Several such scenarios have been explored in the settings of experimental epilepsy and have provided encouraging translational findings and revealed interesting and unexpected new aspects of epileptogenesis. However, it has also emerged that considerable challenges persist before clinical translation becomes feasible. This review provides a general introduction to optogenetics, and an overview of findings that are relevant for understanding how optogenetics may be utilized therapeutically as a highly innovative treatment for epilepsy.</p>},
  author       = {Tönnesen, Jan and Kokaia, Merab},
  issn         = {0143-5221},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {07},
  number       = {14},
  pages        = {1605--1616},
  publisher    = {Portland Press},
  series       = {Clinical Science},
  title        = {Epilepsy and optogenetics : Can seizures be controlled by light?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20160492},
  volume       = {131},
  year         = {2017},
}