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Quantification of total antioxidant potential and its penetration through skin regarding cosmetic relevant formulation: An electrochemical assay

Jelica, Ana LU and Månsson, Jenny (2016) KLG920 20161
Food Technology and Nutrition (M.Sc.)
Abstract
The skin is the outermost barrier that protects our body by performing several functions that is crucial for our survival. It prevents hazardous microorganisms in the outer environment from entering the body as well as preserving the inside by regulating heat and water loss from the body.

Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products which contains active ingredients that induces drug-like effects. For these topical formulations, plant extracts are popular ingredients to act as natural sources due to their high content of antioxidants and their wanted effects in the skin such as anti-aging. A lot of claims are made in this industry about the effects of these products but without sufficient studies to confirm them.

The work presented in this... (More)
The skin is the outermost barrier that protects our body by performing several functions that is crucial for our survival. It prevents hazardous microorganisms in the outer environment from entering the body as well as preserving the inside by regulating heat and water loss from the body.

Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products which contains active ingredients that induces drug-like effects. For these topical formulations, plant extracts are popular ingredients to act as natural sources due to their high content of antioxidants and their wanted effects in the skin such as anti-aging. A lot of claims are made in this industry about the effects of these products but without sufficient studies to confirm them.

The work presented in this thesis centers the development of a method to electrochemically measure the effect of antioxidants of different plant extracts and the behavior of the skin. The method developed is performed by cyclic voltammetry which analyzes the total antioxidant potential in liquid samples and in gel where it has been shown that the gel is affecting the method due to slower diffusion of substances in the formulation.

Experiments performed indicate that skin membrane itself release antioxidants. However, antioxidants from the skin are mainly characterized by higher oxidation potentials (relatively poor antioxidants). A mathematical treatment of CV data was used to assess if the antioxidant potential from the skin can be distinguished from TAP of model antioxidants. The calculations of the total antioxidant potential were, thus, done in the potential ranges between 0-0.6 V where only the effect of low-potential antioxidants is accounted, and 0-1.2 V which represents both low- and high-potential antioxidants. These calculations showed that TAP values from antioxidant compounds from formulations are less affected by the skin’s antioxidants.

Additional studies were performed with guarana and green tea extracts which both indicated that some portion of antioxidants from these extracts penetrate the skin and further guarana extract showed a linear concentration dependence with increasing concentrations in citrate buffer. Furthermore, the antioxidant substances hydroquinone and ascorbic acid were investigated. The results showed that these compounds have high antioxidant potential if compared with the extracts for the concentrations studied. Hydroquinone was also shown to penetrate the skin in much higher amount than ascorbic acid. (Less)
Popular Abstract (Swedish)
Människans hud består av flera olika hudlager som tillsammans bygger upp ett viktigt skydd mot den yttre miljön. Ett populärt sätt för att få aktiva substanser att gå igenom huden är genom att använda sig av så kallade ”cosmeceuticals”, ett mellanting mellan hudvårdsprodukter och läkemedel. Kosmetikaindustrin hävdar att dessa ska ha effekt, dock saknas många studier för att styrka dessa påstående. Dagen krav från kunder att kunna använda så naturliga produkter som möjligt har gjort att växtextrakt har blivit attraktiva att använda i dessa produkter, speciellt på grund av deras innehåll av antioxidanter.
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author
Jelica, Ana LU and Månsson, Jenny
supervisor
organization
course
KLG920 20161
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
porcine skin, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemistry, antioxidants, skin, plant extracts, gel, cosmeceuticals, pharmaceutical technology, läkemedelsteknologi
language
English
id
8881334
date added to LUP
2016-06-21 16:32:54
date last changed
2016-06-21 16:32:54
@misc{8881334,
  abstract     = {The skin is the outermost barrier that protects our body by performing several functions that is crucial for our survival. It prevents hazardous microorganisms in the outer environment from entering the body as well as preserving the inside by regulating heat and water loss from the body. 

Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products which contains active ingredients that induces drug-like effects. For these topical formulations, plant extracts are popular ingredients to act as natural sources due to their high content of antioxidants and their wanted effects in the skin such as anti-aging. A lot of claims are made in this industry about the effects of these products but without sufficient studies to confirm them.

The work presented in this thesis centers the development of a method to electrochemically measure the effect of antioxidants of different plant extracts and the behavior of the skin. The method developed is performed by cyclic voltammetry which analyzes the total antioxidant potential in liquid samples and in gel where it has been shown that the gel is affecting the method due to slower diffusion of substances in the formulation. 

Experiments performed indicate that skin membrane itself release antioxidants. However, antioxidants from the skin are mainly characterized by higher oxidation potentials (relatively poor antioxidants). A mathematical treatment of CV data was used to assess if the antioxidant potential from the skin can be distinguished from TAP of model antioxidants. The calculations of the total antioxidant potential were, thus, done in the potential ranges between 0-0.6 V where only the effect of low-potential antioxidants is accounted, and 0-1.2 V which represents both low- and high-potential antioxidants. These calculations showed that TAP values from antioxidant compounds from formulations are less affected by the skin’s antioxidants. 

Additional studies were performed with guarana and green tea extracts which both indicated that some portion of antioxidants from these extracts penetrate the skin and further guarana extract showed a linear concentration dependence with increasing concentrations in citrate buffer. Furthermore, the antioxidant substances hydroquinone and ascorbic acid were investigated. The results showed that these compounds have high antioxidant potential if compared with the extracts for the concentrations studied. Hydroquinone was also shown to penetrate the skin in much higher amount than ascorbic acid.},
  author       = {Jelica, Ana and Månsson, Jenny},
  keyword      = {porcine skin,cyclic voltammetry,electrochemistry,antioxidants,skin,plant extracts,gel,cosmeceuticals,pharmaceutical technology,läkemedelsteknologi},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Quantification of total antioxidant potential and its penetration through skin regarding cosmetic relevant formulation: An electrochemical assay},
  year         = {2016},
}