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Within-day energy deficiency and reproductive function in female endurance athletes

Fahrenholtz, I L; Sjödin, A; Benardot, D; Tornberg, Å B LU ; Skouby, S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J and Melin, A (2018) In Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
Abstract

We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance (WDEB) in athletes with eumenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction (MD) with similar 24-hour energy availability/energy balance (EA/EB). Furthermore, to investigate whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with resting metabolic rate (RMR), body-composition, S-cortisol, estradiol, T3 , and fasting blood glucose. We reanalyzed 7-day dietary intake and energy expenditure data in 25 elite endurance athletes with eumenorrhea (n=10) and MD (n=15) from a group of 45 subjects where those with disordered eating behaviors (n=11), MD not related to low EA (n=5), and low dietary record validity (n=4) had been excluded. Besides gynecological examination and disordered... (More)

We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance (WDEB) in athletes with eumenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction (MD) with similar 24-hour energy availability/energy balance (EA/EB). Furthermore, to investigate whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with resting metabolic rate (RMR), body-composition, S-cortisol, estradiol, T3 , and fasting blood glucose. We reanalyzed 7-day dietary intake and energy expenditure data in 25 elite endurance athletes with eumenorrhea (n=10) and MD (n=15) from a group of 45 subjects where those with disordered eating behaviors (n=11), MD not related to low EA (n=5), and low dietary record validity (n=4) had been excluded. Besides gynecological examination and disordered eating-evaluation, the protocol included RMR-measurement; assessment of body-composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood plasma analysis, and calculation of WDEB in 1-hour intervals. Subjects with MD spent more hours in a catabolic state compared to eumenorrheic athletes; WDEB <0 kcal: 23.0 hour (20.8-23.4) vs 21.1 hour (4.7-22.3), P=0.048; WDEB <-300 kcal: 21.8 hour (17.8-22.4) vs 17.6 hour (3.9-20.9), P=0.043, although similar 24-hour EA: 35.6 (11.6) vs 41.3 (12.7) kcal/kg FFM/day, (P=0.269), and EB: -659 (551) vs -313 (596) kcal/day, (P=0.160). Hours with WDEB <0 kcal and <-300 kcal were inversely associated with RMRratio (r=-0.487, P=0.013, r=-0.472, P=0.018), and estradiol (r=-0.433, P=0.034, r=-0.516, P=0.009), and positively associated with cortisol (r=0.442, P=0.027, r=0.463, P=0.019). In conclusion, although similar 24-hour EA/EB, the reanalysis revealed that MD athletes spent more time in a catabolic state compared to eumenorrheic athletes. Within-day energy deficiency was associated with clinical markers of metabolic disturbances. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Contribution to journal
publication status
epub
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Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • scopus:85041573839
ISSN
1600-0838
DOI
10.1111/sms.13030
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
09f28acf-f569-4999-8c92-0e72cf66174e
date added to LUP
2018-01-16 13:57:18
date last changed
2018-05-29 10:20:08
@article{09f28acf-f569-4999-8c92-0e72cf66174e,
  abstract     = {<p>We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance (WDEB) in athletes with eumenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction (MD) with similar 24-hour energy availability/energy balance (EA/EB). Furthermore, to investigate whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with resting metabolic rate (RMR), body-composition, S-cortisol, estradiol, T3 , and fasting blood glucose. We reanalyzed 7-day dietary intake and energy expenditure data in 25 elite endurance athletes with eumenorrhea (n=10) and MD (n=15) from a group of 45 subjects where those with disordered eating behaviors (n=11), MD not related to low EA (n=5), and low dietary record validity (n=4) had been excluded. Besides gynecological examination and disordered eating-evaluation, the protocol included RMR-measurement; assessment of body-composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood plasma analysis, and calculation of WDEB in 1-hour intervals. Subjects with MD spent more hours in a catabolic state compared to eumenorrheic athletes; WDEB &lt;0 kcal: 23.0 hour (20.8-23.4) vs 21.1 hour (4.7-22.3), P=0.048; WDEB &lt;-300 kcal: 21.8 hour (17.8-22.4) vs 17.6 hour (3.9-20.9), P=0.043, although similar 24-hour EA: 35.6 (11.6) vs 41.3 (12.7) kcal/kg FFM/day, (P=0.269), and EB: -659 (551) vs -313 (596) kcal/day, (P=0.160). Hours with WDEB &lt;0 kcal and &lt;-300 kcal were inversely associated with RMRratio (r=-0.487, P=0.013, r=-0.472, P=0.018), and estradiol (r=-0.433, P=0.034, r=-0.516, P=0.009), and positively associated with cortisol (r=0.442, P=0.027, r=0.463, P=0.019). In conclusion, although similar 24-hour EA/EB, the reanalysis revealed that MD athletes spent more time in a catabolic state compared to eumenorrheic athletes. Within-day energy deficiency was associated with clinical markers of metabolic disturbances. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p>},
  author       = {Fahrenholtz, I L and Sjödin, A and Benardot, D and Tornberg, Å B and Skouby, S and Faber, J and Sundgot-Borgen, J and Melin, A},
  issn         = {1600-0838},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {02},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports},
  title        = {Within-day energy deficiency and reproductive function in female endurance athletes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13030},
  year         = {2018},
}