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Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast.

Nilsson, Anne LU ; Östman, Elin LU ; Holst, Jens J and Björck, Inger LU (2008) In Journal of Nutrition 138(4). p.732-739
Abstract
Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate... (More)
Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P < 0.05). At breakfast, the glucose response was inversely correlated with colonic fermentation (r = -0.25; P < 0.05) and GLP-1 (r = -0.26; P < 0.05) and positively correlated with FFA (r = 0.37; P < 0.001). IL-6 was lower (P < 0.01) and adiponectin was higher (P < 0.05) at breakfast following an evening meal with barley-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P < 0.01) and inversely with GER (r = -0.23; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the composition of indigestible carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Journal of Nutrition
volume
138
issue
4
pages
732 - 739
publisher
American Society for Nutrition
external identifiers
  • pmid:18356328
  • wos:000254138700013
  • scopus:41549105513
ISSN
1541-6100
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
99daecd8-e3ce-4d62-befa-a7f6907dc7fa (old id 1052261)
alternative location
http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/138/4/732
date added to LUP
2008-07-11 09:31:30
date last changed
2017-11-12 03:26:41
@article{99daecd8-e3ce-4d62-befa-a7f6907dc7fa,
  abstract     = {Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P &lt; 0.05). At breakfast, the glucose response was inversely correlated with colonic fermentation (r = -0.25; P &lt; 0.05) and GLP-1 (r = -0.26; P &lt; 0.05) and positively correlated with FFA (r = 0.37; P &lt; 0.001). IL-6 was lower (P &lt; 0.01) and adiponectin was higher (P &lt; 0.05) at breakfast following an evening meal with barley-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P &lt; 0.01) and inversely with GER (r = -0.23; P &lt; 0.05). In conclusion, the composition of indigestible carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Anne and Östman, Elin and Holst, Jens J and Björck, Inger},
  issn         = {1541-6100},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {732--739},
  publisher    = {American Society for Nutrition},
  series       = {Journal of Nutrition},
  title        = {Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast.},
  volume       = {138},
  year         = {2008},
}