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Effect of Compressed Offline Foveated Video on Viewing Behavior and Subjective Quality

Nyström, Marcus LU and Holmqvist, Kenneth LU (2010) In ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications 6(1). p.1-14
Abstract
Offline foveation is a technique to improve the compression efficiency of digitized video. The general idea behind offline foveation is to blur video regions where no or a small number of previewers look without decreasing the subjective quality for later viewers. It relies on the fact that peripheral vision is reduced compared to central vision, and the observation that during free-viewing humans' gaze positions generally coincide when watching video. In this article, we conduct two experiments to assess how offline foveation affects viewing behavior and subjective quality. In the first experiment, 15 subjects free-viewed six video clips before and after offline foveation whereas in the second experiment we had 17 subjects assessing the... (More)
Offline foveation is a technique to improve the compression efficiency of digitized video. The general idea behind offline foveation is to blur video regions where no or a small number of previewers look without decreasing the subjective quality for later viewers. It relies on the fact that peripheral vision is reduced compared to central vision, and the observation that during free-viewing humans' gaze positions generally coincide when watching video. In this article, we conduct two experiments to assess how offline foveation affects viewing behavior and subjective quality. In the first experiment, 15 subjects free-viewed six video clips before and after offline foveation whereas in the second experiment we had 17 subjects assessing the quality of these videos after one, two, and three consecutive viewings. Eye movements were measured during the experiments. Results showed that, although offline foveation prior to encoding with H. 264 yielded data reductions up to 52% (20% average) on the tested videos, it had little or no effect on where people looked, their intersubject dispersion, fixation duration, saccade amplitude, or the experienced quality during first-time viewing. However, seeing the videos more than once increased the intersubject dispersion and decreased the subjective quality. In view of these results, we discuss the usage of offline foveated video in practical applications. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
foveation, video compression, subjective quality, Algorithms, Eye-tracking
in
ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications
volume
6
issue
1
pages
1 - 14
publisher
ACM
external identifiers
  • wos:000275163200004
  • scopus:78149334236
ISSN
1551-6857
DOI
10.1145/1671954.1671958
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
5afd0f5b-fc7c-44d6-9a30-81aaf9ecc736 (old id 1589859)
date added to LUP
2010-04-19 13:57:55
date last changed
2018-05-29 12:03:02
@article{5afd0f5b-fc7c-44d6-9a30-81aaf9ecc736,
  abstract     = {Offline foveation is a technique to improve the compression efficiency of digitized video. The general idea behind offline foveation is to blur video regions where no or a small number of previewers look without decreasing the subjective quality for later viewers. It relies on the fact that peripheral vision is reduced compared to central vision, and the observation that during free-viewing humans' gaze positions generally coincide when watching video. In this article, we conduct two experiments to assess how offline foveation affects viewing behavior and subjective quality. In the first experiment, 15 subjects free-viewed six video clips before and after offline foveation whereas in the second experiment we had 17 subjects assessing the quality of these videos after one, two, and three consecutive viewings. Eye movements were measured during the experiments. Results showed that, although offline foveation prior to encoding with H. 264 yielded data reductions up to 52% (20% average) on the tested videos, it had little or no effect on where people looked, their intersubject dispersion, fixation duration, saccade amplitude, or the experienced quality during first-time viewing. However, seeing the videos more than once increased the intersubject dispersion and decreased the subjective quality. In view of these results, we discuss the usage of offline foveated video in practical applications.},
  author       = {Nyström, Marcus and Holmqvist, Kenneth},
  issn         = {1551-6857},
  keyword      = {foveation,video compression,subjective quality,Algorithms,Eye-tracking},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {1--14},
  publisher    = {ACM},
  series       = {ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications},
  title        = {Effect of Compressed Offline Foveated Video on Viewing Behavior and Subjective Quality},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1671954.1671958},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2010},
}