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Detailed characterization of particulate matter in alcohol exhaust emissions

Shamun, Sam LU ; Novakovic, Maja LU ; Malmborg, Vilhelm B. LU ; Preger, Calle LU ; Shen, Mengqin LU ; Messing, Maria E. LU ; Pagels, Joakim LU ; Tunér, Martin LU and Tunestål, Per LU (2017) 9th International Conference on Modeling and Diagnostics for Advanved Engine Systems, COMODIA 2017
Abstract

A way to reduce net CO2 emission and circumvent the high particle emissions from compression ignition (CI) engines, while retaining high efficiency, is by utilizing lighter alcohols in the partially premixed combustion (PPC) process. Methanol and ethanol have a very short carbon chain, and form less soot/particulate matter (PM) during combustion compared to diesel fuel. This study analyzes and compares the characteristics of PM emissions from methanol, ethanol and diesel in terms of soot mass concentration, number concentration and particle size distribution in one cylinder of a six cylinder Scania D13 heavy duty (HD) engine under two operating loads; 6 bar and 10 bar gross mean indicated effective pressure... (More)

A way to reduce net CO2 emission and circumvent the high particle emissions from compression ignition (CI) engines, while retaining high efficiency, is by utilizing lighter alcohols in the partially premixed combustion (PPC) process. Methanol and ethanol have a very short carbon chain, and form less soot/particulate matter (PM) during combustion compared to diesel fuel. This study analyzes and compares the characteristics of PM emissions from methanol, ethanol and diesel in terms of soot mass concentration, number concentration and particle size distribution in one cylinder of a six cylinder Scania D13 heavy duty (HD) engine under two operating loads; 6 bar and 10 bar gross mean indicated effective pressure (IMEPG). An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was used to sample PM on copper grids for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Also, new and used lubrication oil together with methanol and diesel were analyzed for their sulphur and metal content. Nucleation mode and the majority of accumulation mode particles from methanol and ethanol combustion, showed mainly Ca, S, P and Zn in the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) analysis and were hypothesized to be emitted mainly from the lubrication oil rather than the combustion of the fuel itself. From diesel combustion, the accumulation mode particles were more abundant in comparison with the alcohols and PM/soot emissions measured with the photo-acoustic technique were 3 to 10 times higher than for the alcohols. There were also fewer nucleation mode particles present; although they consisted of the same four abovementioned elements. Utilizing alcohols in CI engines have a great advantage regarding PM, particle number emissions and efficiency. However, the resulting nucleation mode particles need to be reduced to avoid future health concerns.

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Diesel, Ethanol, Methanol, PM, TEM
host publication
COMODIA 2017 - 9th International Conference on Modeling and Diagnostics for Advanved Engine Systems
publisher
Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers
conference name
9th International Conference on Modeling and Diagnostics for Advanved Engine Systems, COMODIA 2017
conference location
Okayama, Japan
conference dates
2017-07-25 - 2017-07-28
external identifiers
  • scopus:85029395542
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
28168f21-773f-4c20-b180-e0f7ff1e7b3e
date added to LUP
2017-10-05 07:53:22
date last changed
2018-11-21 21:34:59
@inproceedings{28168f21-773f-4c20-b180-e0f7ff1e7b3e,
  abstract     = {<p>A way to reduce net CO<sub>2</sub> emission and circumvent the high particle emissions from compression ignition (CI) engines, while retaining high efficiency, is by utilizing lighter alcohols in the partially premixed combustion (PPC) process. Methanol and ethanol have a very short carbon chain, and form less soot/particulate matter (PM) during combustion compared to diesel fuel. This study analyzes and compares the characteristics of PM emissions from methanol, ethanol and diesel in terms of soot mass concentration, number concentration and particle size distribution in one cylinder of a six cylinder Scania D13 heavy duty (HD) engine under two operating loads; 6 bar and 10 bar gross mean indicated effective pressure (IMEP<sub>G</sub>). An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was used to sample PM on copper grids for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Also, new and used lubrication oil together with methanol and diesel were analyzed for their sulphur and metal content. Nucleation mode and the majority of accumulation mode particles from methanol and ethanol combustion, showed mainly Ca, S, P and Zn in the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) analysis and were hypothesized to be emitted mainly from the lubrication oil rather than the combustion of the fuel itself. From diesel combustion, the accumulation mode particles were more abundant in comparison with the alcohols and PM/soot emissions measured with the photo-acoustic technique were 3 to 10 times higher than for the alcohols. There were also fewer nucleation mode particles present; although they consisted of the same four abovementioned elements. Utilizing alcohols in CI engines have a great advantage regarding PM, particle number emissions and efficiency. However, the resulting nucleation mode particles need to be reduced to avoid future health concerns.</p>},
  author       = {Shamun, Sam and Novakovic, Maja and Malmborg, Vilhelm B. and Preger, Calle and Shen, Mengqin and Messing, Maria E. and Pagels, Joakim and Tunér, Martin and Tunestål, Per},
  keyword      = {Diesel,Ethanol,Methanol,PM,TEM},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Okayama, Japan},
  publisher    = {Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  title        = {Detailed characterization of particulate matter in alcohol exhaust emissions},
  year         = {2017},
}