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Separate physical tests of lower extremities and postural control are associated with cognitive impairment. Results from the general population study Good Aging in Skåne (GÅS-SNAC).

Bramell-Risberg, Eva LU ; Jarnlo, Gun-Britt LU and Elmståhl, Sölve LU (2012) In Clinical Interventions in Aging 7. p.195-205
Abstract
PURPOSE:

To investigate whether separate physical tests of the lower extremities, that assess movement speed and postural control, were associated with cognitive impairment in older community-dwelling subjects.



SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

In this population-based, cross-sectional, cohort study, the following items were assessed: walking speed, walking 2 × 15 m, Timed Up and Go (TUG) at self-selected and fast speeds, one-leg standing, and performance in step- and five chair-stand tests. The study comprised 2115 subjects, aged 60-93 years, with values adjusted for demographics, health-related factors, and comorbidity. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and... (More)
PURPOSE:

To investigate whether separate physical tests of the lower extremities, that assess movement speed and postural control, were associated with cognitive impairment in older community-dwelling subjects.



SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

In this population-based, cross-sectional, cohort study, the following items were assessed: walking speed, walking 2 × 15 m, Timed Up and Go (TUG) at self-selected and fast speeds, one-leg standing, and performance in step- and five chair-stand tests. The study comprised 2115 subjects, aged 60-93 years, with values adjusted for demographics, health-related factors, and comorbidity. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and cognitive impairment was defined by the three-word delayed recall task of the MMSE. Subjects who scored 0/3 on the three-word delayed recall task were defined as cases (n = 328), those who scored 1/3 were defined as intermediates (n = 457), and the others as controls (n = 1330).



RESULTS:

Physical tests performed rapidly were significantly associated with cognitive impairment; this was the case in increased time of five chair stands (P = 0.009, odds ratio [OR] = 1.03), TUG (P < 0.001, OR = 1.11) and walking 2 × 15 m (P < 0.001, OR = 1.05). Inability to stand on one leg for 10 seconds was associated with increased risk of being a case (P < 0.001, OR = 1.78), compared to those able to stand for 30 seconds or longer. More steps during the step test (P < 0.001, OR = 0.95) and higher fast walking speed (P < 0.001, OR = 0.51) were associated with lower risk of being a case.



CONCLUSION:

Slower movements and reduced postural control were related to an increased risk of being cognitively impaired. All tests that were performed rapidly were able to separate cases from controls. These findings suggest that physical tests that are related to lower extremity and postural control, emphasizing velocity, might be useful in investigating relationships between physical and cognitive function; furthermore, they can be used to complement cognitive impairment diagnoses. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Clinical Interventions in Aging
volume
7
pages
195 - 205
publisher
Dove Medical Press Ltd.
external identifiers
  • wos:000305910300001
  • pmid:22807629
  • scopus:84871710540
ISSN
1178-1998
DOI
10.2147/CIA.S31777
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
2d430d12-80b6-4235-a501-a699440d383b (old id 2966995)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22807629?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2012-08-09 19:52:06
date last changed
2017-04-09 03:08:35
@article{2d430d12-80b6-4235-a501-a699440d383b,
  abstract     = {PURPOSE:<br/><br>
To investigate whether separate physical tests of the lower extremities, that assess movement speed and postural control, were associated with cognitive impairment in older community-dwelling subjects.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:<br/><br>
In this population-based, cross-sectional, cohort study, the following items were assessed: walking speed, walking 2 × 15 m, Timed Up and Go (TUG) at self-selected and fast speeds, one-leg standing, and performance in step- and five chair-stand tests. The study comprised 2115 subjects, aged 60-93 years, with values adjusted for demographics, health-related factors, and comorbidity. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and cognitive impairment was defined by the three-word delayed recall task of the MMSE. Subjects who scored 0/3 on the three-word delayed recall task were defined as cases (n = 328), those who scored 1/3 were defined as intermediates (n = 457), and the others as controls (n = 1330).<br/><br>
<br/><br>
RESULTS:<br/><br>
Physical tests performed rapidly were significantly associated with cognitive impairment; this was the case in increased time of five chair stands (P = 0.009, odds ratio [OR] = 1.03), TUG (P &lt; 0.001, OR = 1.11) and walking 2 × 15 m (P &lt; 0.001, OR = 1.05). Inability to stand on one leg for 10 seconds was associated with increased risk of being a case (P &lt; 0.001, OR = 1.78), compared to those able to stand for 30 seconds or longer. More steps during the step test (P &lt; 0.001, OR = 0.95) and higher fast walking speed (P &lt; 0.001, OR = 0.51) were associated with lower risk of being a case.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
CONCLUSION:<br/><br>
Slower movements and reduced postural control were related to an increased risk of being cognitively impaired. All tests that were performed rapidly were able to separate cases from controls. These findings suggest that physical tests that are related to lower extremity and postural control, emphasizing velocity, might be useful in investigating relationships between physical and cognitive function; furthermore, they can be used to complement cognitive impairment diagnoses.},
  author       = {Bramell-Risberg, Eva and Jarnlo, Gun-Britt and Elmståhl, Sölve},
  issn         = {1178-1998},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {195--205},
  publisher    = {Dove Medical Press Ltd.},
  series       = {Clinical Interventions in Aging},
  title        = {Separate physical tests of lower extremities and postural control are associated with cognitive impairment. Results from the general population study Good Aging in Skåne (GÅS-SNAC).},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S31777},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2012},
}