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The Influence of Different Processing Stages on Particle Size, Microstructure, and Appearance of Dark Chocolate

Glicerina, Virginia; Balestra, Federica; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Bergenståhl, Björn LU ; Tornberg, Eva LU and Romani, Santina (2014) In Journal of Food Science 79(7). p.1359-1365
Abstract
The effect of different process stages on microstructural and visual properties of dark chocolate was studied. Samples were obtained at each phase of the manufacture process: mixing, prerefining, refining, conching, and tempering. A laser light diffraction technique and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were used to study the particle size distribution (PSD) and to analyze modifications in the network structure. Moreover, colorimetric analyses (L*, h degrees, and C*) were performed on all samples. Each stage influenced in stronger way the microstructural characteristic of products and above all the PSD. Sauter diameter (D [3.2]) decreased from 5.44 mu m of mixed chocolate sample to 3.83 mu m, of the refined one. ESEM... (More)
The effect of different process stages on microstructural and visual properties of dark chocolate was studied. Samples were obtained at each phase of the manufacture process: mixing, prerefining, refining, conching, and tempering. A laser light diffraction technique and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were used to study the particle size distribution (PSD) and to analyze modifications in the network structure. Moreover, colorimetric analyses (L*, h degrees, and C*) were performed on all samples. Each stage influenced in stronger way the microstructural characteristic of products and above all the PSD. Sauter diameter (D [3.2]) decreased from 5.44 mu m of mixed chocolate sample to 3.83 mu m, of the refined one. ESEM analysis also revealed wide variations in the network structure of samples during the process, with an increase of the aggregation and contact point between particles from mixing to refining stage. Samples obtained from the conching and tempering were characterized by small PS, and a less dense aggregate structure. From color results, samples with the finest particles, having larger specific surface area and the smallest diameter, appeared lighter and more saturated than those with coarse particles. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
appearance, chocolate, ESEM, manufacture stages, microstructure, particle size distribution
in
Journal of Food Science
volume
79
issue
7
pages
1359 - 1365
publisher
Institute of Food Technologists
external identifiers
  • wos:000340665800017
  • scopus:84904276426
ISSN
0022-1147
DOI
10.1111/1750-3841.12508
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
6bd8a830-24b6-4d48-bfab-7a7735b63a79 (old id 4655960)
date added to LUP
2014-09-24 11:15:06
date last changed
2017-08-13 04:10:47
@article{6bd8a830-24b6-4d48-bfab-7a7735b63a79,
  abstract     = {The effect of different process stages on microstructural and visual properties of dark chocolate was studied. Samples were obtained at each phase of the manufacture process: mixing, prerefining, refining, conching, and tempering. A laser light diffraction technique and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were used to study the particle size distribution (PSD) and to analyze modifications in the network structure. Moreover, colorimetric analyses (L*, h degrees, and C*) were performed on all samples. Each stage influenced in stronger way the microstructural characteristic of products and above all the PSD. Sauter diameter (D [3.2]) decreased from 5.44 mu m of mixed chocolate sample to 3.83 mu m, of the refined one. ESEM analysis also revealed wide variations in the network structure of samples during the process, with an increase of the aggregation and contact point between particles from mixing to refining stage. Samples obtained from the conching and tempering were characterized by small PS, and a less dense aggregate structure. From color results, samples with the finest particles, having larger specific surface area and the smallest diameter, appeared lighter and more saturated than those with coarse particles.},
  author       = {Glicerina, Virginia and Balestra, Federica and Dalla Rosa, Marco and Bergenståhl, Björn and Tornberg, Eva and Romani, Santina},
  issn         = {0022-1147},
  keyword      = {appearance,chocolate,ESEM,manufacture stages,microstructure,particle size distribution},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {1359--1365},
  publisher    = {Institute of Food Technologists},
  series       = {Journal of Food Science},
  title        = {The Influence of Different Processing Stages on Particle Size, Microstructure, and Appearance of Dark Chocolate},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12508},
  volume       = {79},
  year         = {2014},
}