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A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease.

Lindeberg, Staffan LU ; Jönsson, Tommy LU ; Granfeldt, Yvonne LU ; Borgstrand, E; Soffman, J; Sjöström, Kerstin LU and Ahrén, Bo LU (2007) In Diabetologia 50(9). p.1795-1807
Abstract
Aims/hypothesis Most studies of diet in glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes have focused on intakes of fat, carbohydrate, fibre, fruits and vegetables. Instead, we aimed to compare diets that were available during human evolution with more recently introduced ones. Methods Twenty-nine patients with ischaemic heart disease plus either glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes were randomised to receive (1) a Palaeolithic ('CyOld Stone Age') diet (n=14), based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; or (2) a Consensus (Mediterranean-like) diet (n=15), based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, fish, oils and margarines. Primary outcome variables were changes in weight, waist... (More)
Aims/hypothesis Most studies of diet in glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes have focused on intakes of fat, carbohydrate, fibre, fruits and vegetables. Instead, we aimed to compare diets that were available during human evolution with more recently introduced ones. Methods Twenty-nine patients with ischaemic heart disease plus either glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes were randomised to receive (1) a Palaeolithic ('CyOld Stone Age') diet (n=14), based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; or (2) a Consensus (Mediterranean-like) diet (n=15), based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, fish, oils and margarines. Primary outcome variables were changes in weight, waist circumference and plasma glucose AUC (AUC Glucose(0-120)) and plasma insulin AUC (AUC Insulin(0-120)) in OGTTs. Results Over 12 weeks, there was a 26% decrease of AUC Glucose(0-120) (p=0.0001) in the Palaeolithic group and a 7% decrease (p=0.08) in the Consensus group. The larger (p=0.001) improvement in the Palaeolithic group was independent (p=0.0008) of change in waist circumference (-5.6 cm in the Palaeolithic group, -2.9 cm in the Consensus group; p=0.03). In the study population as a whole, there was no relationship between change in AUC Glucose(0-120) and changes in weight (r=-0.06, p=0.9) or waist circumference (r=0.01, p=1.0). There was a tendency for a larger decrease of AUC Insulin(0-120) in the Palaeolithic group, but because of the strong association between change in AUC Insulin(0-120) and change in waist circumference (r=0.64, p=0.0003), this did not remain after multivariate analysis. Conclusions/interpretationA Palaeolithic diet may improve glucose tolerance independently of decreased waist circumference. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
type 2 diabetes, evolution, diet, palaeolithic diet, glucose intolerance, ischaemic heart disease
in
Diabetologia
volume
50
issue
9
pages
1795 - 1807
publisher
Springer Verlag
external identifiers
  • wos:000248771800003
  • scopus:34547701720
ISSN
1432-0428
DOI
10.1007/s00125-007-0716-y
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
eb7bb2d5-fb34-43fa-96ff-1bb3edb65c8c (old id 539633)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=17583796&dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2007-12-12 15:47:16
date last changed
2017-10-01 03:48:01
@article{eb7bb2d5-fb34-43fa-96ff-1bb3edb65c8c,
  abstract     = {Aims/hypothesis Most studies of diet in glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes have focused on intakes of fat, carbohydrate, fibre, fruits and vegetables. Instead, we aimed to compare diets that were available during human evolution with more recently introduced ones. Methods Twenty-nine patients with ischaemic heart disease plus either glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes were randomised to receive (1) a Palaeolithic ('CyOld Stone Age') diet (n=14), based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; or (2) a Consensus (Mediterranean-like) diet (n=15), based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, fish, oils and margarines. Primary outcome variables were changes in weight, waist circumference and plasma glucose AUC (AUC Glucose(0-120)) and plasma insulin AUC (AUC Insulin(0-120)) in OGTTs. Results Over 12 weeks, there was a 26% decrease of AUC Glucose(0-120) (p=0.0001) in the Palaeolithic group and a 7% decrease (p=0.08) in the Consensus group. The larger (p=0.001) improvement in the Palaeolithic group was independent (p=0.0008) of change in waist circumference (-5.6 cm in the Palaeolithic group, -2.9 cm in the Consensus group; p=0.03). In the study population as a whole, there was no relationship between change in AUC Glucose(0-120) and changes in weight (r=-0.06, p=0.9) or waist circumference (r=0.01, p=1.0). There was a tendency for a larger decrease of AUC Insulin(0-120) in the Palaeolithic group, but because of the strong association between change in AUC Insulin(0-120) and change in waist circumference (r=0.64, p=0.0003), this did not remain after multivariate analysis. Conclusions/interpretationA Palaeolithic diet may improve glucose tolerance independently of decreased waist circumference.},
  author       = {Lindeberg, Staffan and Jönsson, Tommy and Granfeldt, Yvonne and Borgstrand, E and Soffman, J and Sjöström, Kerstin and Ahrén, Bo},
  issn         = {1432-0428},
  keyword      = {type 2 diabetes,evolution,diet,palaeolithic diet,glucose intolerance,ischaemic heart disease},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {1795--1807},
  publisher    = {Springer Verlag},
  series       = {Diabetologia},
  title        = {A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-007-0716-y},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2007},
}