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Excretion of Urinary Metabolites of the Phthalate Esters DEP and DEHP in 16 Volunteers after Inhalation and Dermal Exposure

Krais, Annette M. LU ; Andersen, Christina LU ; Eriksson, Axel C. LU ; Johnsson, Eskil LU ; Nielsen, Jörn LU ; Pagels, Joakim LU ; Gudmundsson, Anders LU ; Lindh, Christian H. LU and Wierzbicka, Aneta LU (2018) In International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(11).
Abstract

Phthalate esters are suspected endocrine disruptors that are found in a wide range of applications. The aim of this study was to determine the excretion of urinary metabolites in 16 individuals after inhalation and/or dermal exposure to 100⁻300 µg/m³ of deuterium-labelled diethyl phthalate (D₄-DEP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (D₄-DEHP). Dermal exposure in this study represents a case with clean clothing acting as a barrier. After inhalation, D₄-DEP and D₄-DEHP metabolites were excreted rapidly, though inter-individual variation was high. D₄-DEP excretion peaked 3.3 h (T½ of 2.1 h) after combined inhalation and dermal exposure, with total excreted metabolite levels ranging from 0.055 to 2.351 nmol/nmol/m³ (nmol of urinary metabolites... (More)

Phthalate esters are suspected endocrine disruptors that are found in a wide range of applications. The aim of this study was to determine the excretion of urinary metabolites in 16 individuals after inhalation and/or dermal exposure to 100⁻300 µg/m³ of deuterium-labelled diethyl phthalate (D₄-DEP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (D₄-DEHP). Dermal exposure in this study represents a case with clean clothing acting as a barrier. After inhalation, D₄-DEP and D₄-DEHP metabolites were excreted rapidly, though inter-individual variation was high. D₄-DEP excretion peaked 3.3 h (T½ of 2.1 h) after combined inhalation and dermal exposure, with total excreted metabolite levels ranging from 0.055 to 2.351 nmol/nmol/m³ (nmol of urinary metabolites per phthalates air concentration in (nmol/m³)). After dermal exposure to D₄-DEP, metabolite excretion peaked 4.6 h (T½ of 2.7 h) after exposure, with excreted metabolite levels in between 0.017 and 0.223 nmol/nmol/m³. After combined inhalation and dermal exposure to D₄-DEHP, the excretion of all five analysed metabolites peaked after 4.7 h on average (T½ of 4.8 h), and metabolite levels ranged from 0.072 to 1.105 nmol/nmol/m³ between participants. No dermal uptake of particle phase D₄-DEHP was observed. In conclusion, the average excreted levels of metabolites after combined inhalation and dermal exposure to D₄-DEP was three times higher than after combined exposure to D₄-DEHP; and nine times higher than after dermal exposure of D₄-DEP. This study was made possible due to the use of novel approaches, i.e., the use of labelled phthalate esters to avoid the background concentration, and innovative technique of phthalate generation, both in the particle and the gas phase.

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organization
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
human biomonitoring, human exposure studies, indoor air pollution, indoor environment, phthalate esters
in
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
volume
15
issue
11
publisher
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
external identifiers
  • scopus:85056527284
ISSN
1660-4601
DOI
10.3390/ijerph15112514
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
6f0e2c9a-c710-46c4-bcdc-c8f2a37de523
date added to LUP
2018-11-27 13:53:56
date last changed
2019-03-19 04:03:00
@article{6f0e2c9a-c710-46c4-bcdc-c8f2a37de523,
  abstract     = {<p>Phthalate esters are suspected endocrine disruptors that are found in a wide range of applications. The aim of this study was to determine the excretion of urinary metabolites in 16 individuals after inhalation and/or dermal exposure to 100⁻300 µg/m³ of deuterium-labelled diethyl phthalate (D₄-DEP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (D₄-DEHP). Dermal exposure in this study represents a case with clean clothing acting as a barrier. After inhalation, D₄-DEP and D₄-DEHP metabolites were excreted rapidly, though inter-individual variation was high. D₄-DEP excretion peaked 3.3 h (T½ of 2.1 h) after combined inhalation and dermal exposure, with total excreted metabolite levels ranging from 0.055 to 2.351 nmol/nmol/m³ (nmol of urinary metabolites per phthalates air concentration in (nmol/m³)). After dermal exposure to D₄-DEP, metabolite excretion peaked 4.6 h (T½ of 2.7 h) after exposure, with excreted metabolite levels in between 0.017 and 0.223 nmol/nmol/m³. After combined inhalation and dermal exposure to D₄-DEHP, the excretion of all five analysed metabolites peaked after 4.7 h on average (T½ of 4.8 h), and metabolite levels ranged from 0.072 to 1.105 nmol/nmol/m³ between participants. No dermal uptake of particle phase D₄-DEHP was observed. In conclusion, the average excreted levels of metabolites after combined inhalation and dermal exposure to D₄-DEP was three times higher than after combined exposure to D₄-DEHP; and nine times higher than after dermal exposure of D₄-DEP. This study was made possible due to the use of novel approaches, i.e., the use of labelled phthalate esters to avoid the background concentration, and innovative technique of phthalate generation, both in the particle and the gas phase.</p>},
  articleno    = {2514},
  author       = {Krais, Annette M. and Andersen, Christina and Eriksson, Axel C. and Johnsson, Eskil and Nielsen, Jörn and Pagels, Joakim and Gudmundsson, Anders and Lindh, Christian H. and Wierzbicka, Aneta},
  issn         = {1660-4601},
  keyword      = {human biomonitoring,human exposure studies,indoor air pollution,indoor environment,phthalate esters},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {11},
  number       = {11},
  publisher    = {Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)},
  series       = {International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health},
  title        = {Excretion of Urinary Metabolites of the Phthalate Esters DEP and DEHP in 16 Volunteers after Inhalation and Dermal Exposure},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112514},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2018},
}