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Evolution of In-Cylinder Diesel Engine Soot and Emission Characteristics Investigated with Online Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

Malmborg, Vilhelm LU ; Eriksson, Axel LU ; Shen, Mengqin LU ; Nilsson, Patrik LU ; Gallo, Yann LU ; Waldheim, Björn; Martinsson, Johan LU ; Andersson, Öivind LU and Pagels, Joakim LU (2017) In Environmental Science and Technology 51(3). p.1876-1885
Abstract
To design diesel engines with low environmental impact, it is important to link health and climate-relevant soot (black carbon) emission characteristics to specific combustion conditions. The in-cylinder evolution of soot properties over the combustion cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. A novel combination of a fast gas-sampling valve and a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) enabled online measurements of the in-cylinder soot chemistry. The results show that EGR reduced the soot formation rate. However, the late cycle soot oxidation rate (soot removal) was reduced even more, and the net effect was increased soot emissions. EGR resulted in an... (More)
To design diesel engines with low environmental impact, it is important to link health and climate-relevant soot (black carbon) emission characteristics to specific combustion conditions. The in-cylinder evolution of soot properties over the combustion cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. A novel combination of a fast gas-sampling valve and a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) enabled online measurements of the in-cylinder soot chemistry. The results show that EGR reduced the soot formation rate. However, the late cycle soot oxidation rate (soot removal) was reduced even more, and the net effect was increased soot emissions. EGR resulted in an accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during combustion, and led to increased PAH emissions. We show that mass spectral and optical signatures of the in-cylinder soot and associated low volatility organics change dramatically from the soot formation dominated phase to the soot oxidation dominated phase. These signatures include a class of fullerene carbon clusters that we hypothesize represent less graphitized, C5-containing fullerenic (high tortuosity or curved) soot nanostructures arising from decreased combustion temperatures and increased premixing of air and fuel with EGR. Altered soot properties are of key importance when designing emission control strategies such as diesel particulate filters and when introducing novel biofuels. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Environmental Science and Technology
volume
51
issue
3
pages
1876 - 1885
publisher
The American Chemical Society
external identifiers
  • scopus:85013073295
  • wos:000393738700099
ISSN
1520-5851
DOI
10.1021/acs.est.6b03391
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
71e13f9b-7a9d-47a8-8f74-e3ffbbd325cc
date added to LUP
2017-02-03 09:03:26
date last changed
2018-05-27 04:39:08
@article{71e13f9b-7a9d-47a8-8f74-e3ffbbd325cc,
  abstract     = {To design diesel engines with low environmental impact, it is important to link health and climate-relevant soot (black carbon) emission characteristics to specific combustion conditions. The in-cylinder evolution of soot properties over the combustion cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. A novel combination of a fast gas-sampling valve and a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) enabled online measurements of the in-cylinder soot chemistry. The results show that EGR reduced the soot formation rate. However, the late cycle soot oxidation rate (soot removal) was reduced even more, and the net effect was increased soot emissions. EGR resulted in an accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during combustion, and led to increased PAH emissions. We show that mass spectral and optical signatures of the in-cylinder soot and associated low volatility organics change dramatically from the soot formation dominated phase to the soot oxidation dominated phase. These signatures include a class of fullerene carbon clusters that we hypothesize represent less graphitized, C5-containing fullerenic (high tortuosity or curved) soot nanostructures arising from decreased combustion temperatures and increased premixing of air and fuel with EGR. Altered soot properties are of key importance when designing emission control strategies such as diesel particulate filters and when introducing novel biofuels.},
  author       = {Malmborg, Vilhelm and Eriksson, Axel and Shen, Mengqin and Nilsson, Patrik and Gallo, Yann and Waldheim, Björn and Martinsson, Johan and Andersson, Öivind and Pagels, Joakim},
  issn         = {1520-5851},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {01},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {1876--1885},
  publisher    = {The American Chemical Society},
  series       = {Environmental Science and Technology},
  title        = {Evolution of In-Cylinder Diesel Engine Soot and Emission Characteristics Investigated with Online Aerosol Mass Spectrometry},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b03391},
  volume       = {51},
  year         = {2017},
}