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All good readers are the same, but every low-skilled reader is different : an eye-tracking study using PISA data

Krstić, Ksenija ; Šoškić, Anđela ; Ković, Vanja and Holmqvist, Kenneth LU (2018) In European Journal of Psychology of Education 33(3). p.521-541
Abstract

PISA results show that a considerable number of 15-year-old pupils after 8 to 10 years of schooling have a low level of functional reading literacy, as defined in the PISA framework. While PISA results help identify the level of reading competency, they do not reveal what might be the reasons why some students fail to solve the tasks. One way to explore the difficulties students encounter while solving PISA reading tasks is to track their eye movements during reading. The main aim of this study was to explore the similarities and differences in eye movement patterns between students with high and low scores on PISA reading tasks. A sample of 92 students took part in the pre-test, which was based on PISA items, and administered to... (More)

PISA results show that a considerable number of 15-year-old pupils after 8 to 10 years of schooling have a low level of functional reading literacy, as defined in the PISA framework. While PISA results help identify the level of reading competency, they do not reveal what might be the reasons why some students fail to solve the tasks. One way to explore the difficulties students encounter while solving PISA reading tasks is to track their eye movements during reading. The main aim of this study was to explore the similarities and differences in eye movement patterns between students with high and low scores on PISA reading tasks. A sample of 92 students took part in the pre-test, which was based on PISA items, and administered to identify groups of students with high and low PISA reading scores. Based on student pre-test results, 20 students were selected for the main, eye-tracking test—10 participants with low scores and 10 with high scores. The eye-tracking test consisted of four different released PISA reading tasks, three of them continuous and one non-continuous. The continuous items were followed by one multiple-choice question each at L1, L2, and L3 levels of difficulty. The non-continuous text was followed by three multiple-choice questions (also L1–L3). Three main findings were the following: regarding saccadic amplitudes, the reading was found to be less fluent for the low-skilled group; according to the heat maps, they had difficulty finding the relevant material; and taking into account standard deviations of eye-tracking measures, the variability was found to be larger in this group. Taken together, the findings of this study show that the PISA results differentiating low- and high-scoring groups go hand in hand with insights from more fine-grained eye-tracking measurements.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Eye-tracking, Heat maps, PISA reading literacy, Reading comprehension, Strategies of reading
in
European Journal of Psychology of Education
volume
33
issue
3
pages
21 pages
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • scopus:85048311921
ISSN
0256-2928
DOI
10.1007/s10212-018-0382-0
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e14c4d54-34c2-461b-bd34-449d09ec5993
date added to LUP
2018-06-25 13:34:31
date last changed
2020-04-07 04:54:42
@article{e14c4d54-34c2-461b-bd34-449d09ec5993,
  abstract     = {<p>PISA results show that a considerable number of 15-year-old pupils after 8 to 10 years of schooling have a low level of functional reading literacy, as defined in the PISA framework. While PISA results help identify the level of reading competency, they do not reveal what might be the reasons why some students fail to solve the tasks. One way to explore the difficulties students encounter while solving PISA reading tasks is to track their eye movements during reading. The main aim of this study was to explore the similarities and differences in eye movement patterns between students with high and low scores on PISA reading tasks. A sample of 92 students took part in the pre-test, which was based on PISA items, and administered to identify groups of students with high and low PISA reading scores. Based on student pre-test results, 20 students were selected for the main, eye-tracking test—10 participants with low scores and 10 with high scores. The eye-tracking test consisted of four different released PISA reading tasks, three of them continuous and one non-continuous. The continuous items were followed by one multiple-choice question each at L1, L2, and L3 levels of difficulty. The non-continuous text was followed by three multiple-choice questions (also L1–L3). Three main findings were the following: regarding saccadic amplitudes, the reading was found to be less fluent for the low-skilled group; according to the heat maps, they had difficulty finding the relevant material; and taking into account standard deviations of eye-tracking measures, the variability was found to be larger in this group. Taken together, the findings of this study show that the PISA results differentiating low- and high-scoring groups go hand in hand with insights from more fine-grained eye-tracking measurements.</p>},
  author       = {Krstić, Ksenija and Šoškić, Anđela and Ković, Vanja and Holmqvist, Kenneth},
  issn         = {0256-2928},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {07},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {521--541},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {European Journal of Psychology of Education},
  title        = {All good readers are the same, but every low-skilled reader is different : an eye-tracking study using PISA data},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10212-018-0382-0},
  doi          = {10.1007/s10212-018-0382-0},
  volume       = {33},
  year         = {2018},
}