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A Study on the Photo-Stability of Spray Dried Bixin That is Encapsulated with Carbohydrates

Tannira, Vandana LU (2017) KLGM01 20171
Food Technology and Nutrition (M.Sc.)
Abstract
Bixin is a carotenoid which is extracted from annatto (Bixa orellana). Its main application is as a coloring agent. It consists of conjugating double bonds with a carboxylic end, making it prone to degradation by oxygen, light and heat. This study investigates the light stability of bixin encapsulated with maltodextrin (MD), sucrose and whey by spray drying. MD was added with additives such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), gum arabic (GA) and pectin to examine their interaction effects. Two sets of samples were used; one with pure bixin and carbohydrates, and the other, with non-filtered bixin encapsulated with the same set of carbohydrates and a carbohydrate naturally present in the seeds named botanical tissue. The samples were... (More)
Bixin is a carotenoid which is extracted from annatto (Bixa orellana). Its main application is as a coloring agent. It consists of conjugating double bonds with a carboxylic end, making it prone to degradation by oxygen, light and heat. This study investigates the light stability of bixin encapsulated with maltodextrin (MD), sucrose and whey by spray drying. MD was added with additives such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), gum arabic (GA) and pectin to examine their interaction effects. Two sets of samples were used; one with pure bixin and carbohydrates, and the other, with non-filtered bixin encapsulated with the same set of carbohydrates and a carbohydrate naturally present in the seeds named botanical tissue. The samples were illuminated using a plasma sulfur lamp for a period of 30 days. UV-Visible spectrometer was used to keep track of the degradation. Statistic tests such as Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA and t-test were used to confirm that the degradation was linear and that they follow first order decay. Quantum yields of photo-bleaching were calculated and compared between samples. Lower the quantum yield, higher the light stability. The presence of carbohydrates significantly improved the stability of bixin in comparison with non-encapsulated samples. The non-encapsulated samples lost their color completely by day 9 while the others lasted till 30 days. Sucrose showed the highest degradation rate in the absence of botanical tissue. Although sucrose and whey showed highest stability towards light in the presence of botanical tissue, the mix of MD and CMC worked better without botanical tissue. Botanical tissue seems to play a complex role in protecting bixin as the results varied with different carbohydrates. (Less)
Popular Abstract
Bixin is a coloring agent used in various industries especially food and textile industries. The color is achieved from annatto fruits found in tropical areas. It is known to produce colored products efficiently but there is an issue with its stability. The color gets bleached gradually until it gets completely lost. This is because it reacts with the oxygen in the surrounding air and gets changed in structure which will no longer have the same properties. A similar effect can be noticed when it is subjected to heat and light. Bixin can be protected from such changes by covering it with another material in a capsule form. In this case, carbohydrates were used to encapsulate bixin to provide better stability. In addition to this, bixin was... (More)
Bixin is a coloring agent used in various industries especially food and textile industries. The color is achieved from annatto fruits found in tropical areas. It is known to produce colored products efficiently but there is an issue with its stability. The color gets bleached gradually until it gets completely lost. This is because it reacts with the oxygen in the surrounding air and gets changed in structure which will no longer have the same properties. A similar effect can be noticed when it is subjected to heat and light. Bixin can be protected from such changes by covering it with another material in a capsule form. In this case, carbohydrates were used to encapsulate bixin to provide better stability. In addition to this, bixin was found to have an additional carbohydrate (botanical tissue) cover that occurs naturally during extraction.

The goal of this study was to examine how well the carbohydrates prevent degradation of color caused by light with and without the botanical tissue. Sucrose, whey and maltodextrin along with some additives were investigated as carbohydrates. The samples were placed under a lamp that provided light that was similar to daylight for 30 days. It was seen that without carbohydrates, bixin lost all of its color in 9 days, while the rest lasted for 30 days. This shows that carbohydrates do prevent color decay to a great extent. When analyzed, it was seen that the color degraded uniformly along the 30 days. Botanical tissue gave a nice color to the samples which stayed till the end of the study. Along with this, the amount of light absorbed by the samples was also calculated. Either bixin molecules or oxygen molecules were made reactive with the energy absorbed from light and this caused a reaction between them, leading to bleaching.

Amongst all the samples with carbohydrates, bixin with sucrose had the highest loss of color. But this was overcome when botanical tissue was present. In terms of light stability, sucrose and whey showed better results than maltodextrin when added with botanical tissue. However, on the whole, maltodextrin and whey provided consistent results in stabilizing bixin. Botanical tissue gave interesting results, it seems to add on to the beneficial properties of the carbohydrates in some cases but not always and this makes it complex. A deeper look into the impact of botanical tissue would be intriguing to learn. (Less)
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author
Tannira, Vandana LU
supervisor
organization
course
KLGM01 20171
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
food technology, quantum yield of photo-bleaching, decay constant, botanical tissue, carbohydrates, Bixin, livsmedelsteknologi
language
English
id
8923898
date added to LUP
2017-08-30 14:49:25
date last changed
2017-08-30 14:49:25
@misc{8923898,
  abstract     = {Bixin is a carotenoid which is extracted from annatto (Bixa orellana). Its main application is as a coloring agent. It consists of conjugating double bonds with a carboxylic end, making it prone to degradation by oxygen, light and heat. This study investigates the light stability of bixin encapsulated with maltodextrin (MD), sucrose and whey by spray drying. MD was added with additives such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), gum arabic (GA) and pectin to examine their interaction effects. Two sets of samples were used; one with pure bixin and carbohydrates, and the other, with non-filtered bixin encapsulated with the same set of carbohydrates and a carbohydrate naturally present in the seeds named botanical tissue. The samples were illuminated using a plasma sulfur lamp for a period of 30 days. UV-Visible spectrometer was used to keep track of the degradation. Statistic tests such as Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA and t-test were used to confirm that the degradation was linear and that they follow first order decay. Quantum yields of photo-bleaching were calculated and compared between samples. Lower the quantum yield, higher the light stability. The presence of carbohydrates significantly improved the stability of bixin in comparison with non-encapsulated samples. The non-encapsulated samples lost their color completely by day 9 while the others lasted till 30 days. Sucrose showed the highest degradation rate in the absence of botanical tissue. Although sucrose and whey showed highest stability towards light in the presence of botanical tissue, the mix of MD and CMC worked better without botanical tissue. Botanical tissue seems to play a complex role in protecting bixin as the results varied with different carbohydrates.},
  author       = {Tannira, Vandana},
  keyword      = {food technology,quantum yield of photo-bleaching,decay constant,botanical tissue,carbohydrates,Bixin,livsmedelsteknologi},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {A Study on the Photo-Stability of Spray Dried Bixin That is Encapsulated with Carbohydrates},
  year         = {2017},
}