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Glycemia and insulinemia in healthy subjects after lactose-equivalent meals of milk and other food proteins: the role of plasma amino acids and incretins1,2,3

Nilsson, Mikael LU ; Stenberg, Marianne LU ; Frid, Anders LU ; Holst, Jens J and Björck, Inger LU (2004) In American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80(5). p.1246-1253
Abstract
Background: Milk products deviate from other carbohydrate-containing foods in that they produce high insulin responses, despite their low GI. The insulinotropic mechanism of milk has not been elucidated.



Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of common dietary sources of animal or vegetable proteins on concentrations of postprandial blood glucose, insulin, amino acids, and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1] in healthy subjects.



Design: Twelve healthy volunteers were served test meals consisting of reconstituted milk, cheese, whey, cod, and wheat gluten with equivalent amounts of lactose. An equicarbohydrate load of... (More)
Background: Milk products deviate from other carbohydrate-containing foods in that they produce high insulin responses, despite their low GI. The insulinotropic mechanism of milk has not been elucidated.



Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of common dietary sources of animal or vegetable proteins on concentrations of postprandial blood glucose, insulin, amino acids, and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1] in healthy subjects.



Design: Twelve healthy volunteers were served test meals consisting of reconstituted milk, cheese, whey, cod, and wheat gluten with equivalent amounts of lactose. An equicarbohydrate load of white-wheat bread was used as a reference meal.



Results: A correlation was found between postprandial insulin responses and early increments in plasma amino acids; the strongest correlations were seen for leucine, valine, lysine, and isoleucine. A correlation was also obtained between responses of insulin and GIP concentrations. Reconstituted milk powder and whey had substantially lower postprandial glucose areas under the curve (AUCs) than did the bread reference (–62% and –57%, respectively). Whey meal was accompanied by higher AUCs for insulin (90%) and GIP (54%).



Conclusions: It can be concluded that food proteins differ in their capacity to stimulate insulin release, possibly by differently affecting the early release of incretin hormones and insulinotropic amino acids. Milk proteins have insulinotropic properties; the whey fraction contains the predominating insulin secretagogue. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
volume
80
issue
5
pages
1246 - 1253
publisher
American Society for Clinical Nutrition
external identifiers
  • pmid:15531672
  • wos:000225036000020
ISSN
1938-3207
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
a3e5d848-fb69-4f92-80ab-2a8478f02879 (old id 142530)
alternative location
http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/80/5/1246
date added to LUP
2007-07-16 11:02:48
date last changed
2016-04-16 04:49:23
@article{a3e5d848-fb69-4f92-80ab-2a8478f02879,
  abstract     = {Background: Milk products deviate from other carbohydrate-containing foods in that they produce high insulin responses, despite their low GI. The insulinotropic mechanism of milk has not been elucidated. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of common dietary sources of animal or vegetable proteins on concentrations of postprandial blood glucose, insulin, amino acids, and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1] in healthy subjects. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
Design: Twelve healthy volunteers were served test meals consisting of reconstituted milk, cheese, whey, cod, and wheat gluten with equivalent amounts of lactose. An equicarbohydrate load of white-wheat bread was used as a reference meal. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
Results: A correlation was found between postprandial insulin responses and early increments in plasma amino acids; the strongest correlations were seen for leucine, valine, lysine, and isoleucine. A correlation was also obtained between responses of insulin and GIP concentrations. Reconstituted milk powder and whey had substantially lower postprandial glucose areas under the curve (AUCs) than did the bread reference (–62% and –57%, respectively). Whey meal was accompanied by higher AUCs for insulin (90%) and GIP (54%). <br/><br>
<br/><br>
Conclusions: It can be concluded that food proteins differ in their capacity to stimulate insulin release, possibly by differently affecting the early release of incretin hormones and insulinotropic amino acids. Milk proteins have insulinotropic properties; the whey fraction contains the predominating insulin secretagogue.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Mikael and Stenberg, Marianne and Frid, Anders and Holst, Jens J and Björck, Inger},
  issn         = {1938-3207},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1246--1253},
  publisher    = {American Society for Clinical Nutrition},
  series       = {American Journal of Clinical Nutrition},
  title        = {Glycemia and insulinemia in healthy subjects after lactose-equivalent meals of milk and other food proteins: the role of plasma amino acids and incretins1,2,3},
  volume       = {80},
  year         = {2004},
}