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Comparison of milk protein composition and rennet coagulation properties in native Swedish dairy cow breeds and high-yielding Swedish Red cows

Poulsen, Nina A; Glantz, Maria LU ; Rosengaard, Anette K.; Paulsson, Marie LU and Larsen, Lotte B. (2017) In Journal of Dairy Science
Abstract

Recent studies have reported a very high frequency of noncoagulating milk in Swedish Red cows. The underlying factors are not fully understood. In this study, we explored rennet-induced coagulation properties and relative protein profiles in milk from native Swedish Mountain and Swedish Red Polled cows and compared them with a subset of noncoagulating (NC) and well-coagulating (WC) milk samples from modern Swedish Red cows. The native breeds displayed a very low prevalence of NC milk and superior milk coagulation properties compared with Swedish Red cows. The predominant variants in both native breeds were αS1-casein (αS1-CN) B, β-CN A2 and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) B. For κ-CN, the B variant was... (More)

Recent studies have reported a very high frequency of noncoagulating milk in Swedish Red cows. The underlying factors are not fully understood. In this study, we explored rennet-induced coagulation properties and relative protein profiles in milk from native Swedish Mountain and Swedish Red Polled cows and compared them with a subset of noncoagulating (NC) and well-coagulating (WC) milk samples from modern Swedish Red cows. The native breeds displayed a very low prevalence of NC milk and superior milk coagulation properties compared with Swedish Red cows. The predominant variants in both native breeds were αS1-casein (αS1-CN) B, β-CN A2 and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) B. For κ-CN, the B variant was predominant in the Swedish Mountain cows, whereas the A variant was the most frequent in the Swedish Red Polled. The native breeds displayed similar protein composition, but varied in content of αS1-CN with 9 phosphorylated serines (9P) form. Within the Swedish Mountain cows, we observed a strong inverse correlation between the relative concentration of κ-CN and micelle size and a positive correlation between ionic calcium and gel firmness. For comparison, we investigated a subset of 29 NC and 28 WC milk samples, representing the extremes with regard to coagulation properties based on an initial screening of 395 Swedish Red cows. In Swedish Red, NC milk properties were found to be related to higher frequencies of β-CN A2, κ-CN E and A variants, as well as β-LG B, and the predominant composite genotype of β- and κ-CN in the NC group was A2A2/AA. Generally, the A2A2/AA composite genotype was related to lower relative concentrations of κ-CN isoforms and higher relative concentrations of αS1-, αS2-, and β-CN. Compared with the group of WC milk samples, NC milk contained a higher fraction of αS2-CN and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) but a lower fraction of αS1-CN 9P. In conclusion, milk from native Swedish breeds has good characteristics for cheese milk, which could be exploited in niche dairy products. In milk from Swedish Mountain cows, levels of ionic calcium seemed to be more important for rennet-induced gel firmness than variation in the relative protein profile. In Swedish Red, lower protein content as well as higher fraction of αS2-CN and lower fraction of αS1-CN 9P were related to NC milk. Further, a decrease in the frequency of the composite β-κ-CN genotype A2A2/AA through selective breeding could have a positive effect on milk coagulation properties.

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author
organization
publishing date
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Contribution to journal
publication status
epub
subject
keywords
Genetic polymorphism, Indigenous cattle, Liquid chromatography, Mass spectrometry
in
Journal of Dairy Science
publisher
American Dairy Science Association
external identifiers
  • scopus:85029227146
  • wos:000413606600008
ISSN
0022-0302
DOI
10.3168/jds.2017-12920
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
4db6a8e9-c022-4a61-95a3-915bc6e4893c
date added to LUP
2017-10-05 07:30:09
date last changed
2018-01-16 13:20:51
@article{4db6a8e9-c022-4a61-95a3-915bc6e4893c,
  abstract     = {<p>Recent studies have reported a very high frequency of noncoagulating milk in Swedish Red cows. The underlying factors are not fully understood. In this study, we explored rennet-induced coagulation properties and relative protein profiles in milk from native Swedish Mountain and Swedish Red Polled cows and compared them with a subset of noncoagulating (NC) and well-coagulating (WC) milk samples from modern Swedish Red cows. The native breeds displayed a very low prevalence of NC milk and superior milk coagulation properties compared with Swedish Red cows. The predominant variants in both native breeds were α<sub>S1</sub>-casein (α<sub>S1</sub>-CN) B, β-CN A<sup>2</sup> and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) B. For κ-CN, the B variant was predominant in the Swedish Mountain cows, whereas the A variant was the most frequent in the Swedish Red Polled. The native breeds displayed similar protein composition, but varied in content of α<sub>S1</sub>-CN with 9 phosphorylated serines (9P) form. Within the Swedish Mountain cows, we observed a strong inverse correlation between the relative concentration of κ-CN and micelle size and a positive correlation between ionic calcium and gel firmness. For comparison, we investigated a subset of 29 NC and 28 WC milk samples, representing the extremes with regard to coagulation properties based on an initial screening of 395 Swedish Red cows. In Swedish Red, NC milk properties were found to be related to higher frequencies of β-CN A<sup>2</sup>, κ-CN E and A variants, as well as β-LG B, and the predominant composite genotype of β- and κ-CN in the NC group was A<sup>2</sup>A<sup>2</sup>/AA. Generally, the A<sup>2</sup>A<sup>2</sup>/AA composite genotype was related to lower relative concentrations of κ-CN isoforms and higher relative concentrations of α<sub>S1</sub>-, α<sub>S2</sub>-, and β-CN. Compared with the group of WC milk samples, NC milk contained a higher fraction of α<sub>S2</sub>-CN and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) but a lower fraction of α<sub>S1</sub>-CN 9P. In conclusion, milk from native Swedish breeds has good characteristics for cheese milk, which could be exploited in niche dairy products. In milk from Swedish Mountain cows, levels of ionic calcium seemed to be more important for rennet-induced gel firmness than variation in the relative protein profile. In Swedish Red, lower protein content as well as higher fraction of α<sub>S2</sub>-CN and lower fraction of α<sub>S1</sub>-CN 9P were related to NC milk. Further, a decrease in the frequency of the composite β-κ-CN genotype A<sup>2</sup>A<sup>2</sup>/AA through selective breeding could have a positive effect on milk coagulation properties.</p>},
  author       = {Poulsen, Nina A and Glantz, Maria and Rosengaard, Anette K. and Paulsson, Marie and Larsen, Lotte B.},
  issn         = {0022-0302},
  keyword      = {Genetic polymorphism,Indigenous cattle,Liquid chromatography,Mass spectrometry},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {09},
  publisher    = {American Dairy Science Association},
  series       = {Journal of Dairy Science},
  title        = {Comparison of milk protein composition and rennet coagulation properties in native Swedish dairy cow breeds and high-yielding Swedish Red cows},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-12920},
  year         = {2017},
}