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Metabolic effects of amino acid mixtures and whey protein in healthy subjects: studies using glucose-equivalent drinks

Nilsson, Mikael LU ; Holst, Jens J. and Björck, Inger LU (2007) In American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85(4). p.996-1004
Abstract
Background: Milk protein, in particular the whey fraction, has been shown to display insulinotrophic properties in healthy persons and persons with type 2 diabetes. In parallel to the hyperinsulinemia, a pronounced postprandial rise of certain amino acids and of glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) was observed in plasma. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine to what extent the insulinotrophic properties of whey could be simulated by specific amino acid mixtures. Design: Twelve healthy volunteers were served drinks consisting of pure glucose (reference drink) or glucose supplemented with free amino acids or whey proteins (test drinks). Results: A test drink with the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine,... (More)
Background: Milk protein, in particular the whey fraction, has been shown to display insulinotrophic properties in healthy persons and persons with type 2 diabetes. In parallel to the hyperinsulinemia, a pronounced postprandial rise of certain amino acids and of glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) was observed in plasma. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine to what extent the insulinotrophic properties of whey could be simulated by specific amino acid mixtures. Design: Twelve healthy volunteers were served drinks consisting of pure glucose (reference drink) or glucose supplemented with free amino acids or whey proteins (test drinks). Results: A test drink with the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine resulted in significantly higher insulin responses than did the glucose reference. A drink containing glucose and leucine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, and threonine mimicked the glycemic and insulinemic responses seen after whey ingestion. With consumption of this drink, the glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 44% smaller (P < 0.05) and the insulin AUC was 31% larger (NS) than with consumption of the reference drink. With consumption of the whey drink, the AUCs were 56% smaller (glucose; P < 0.05) and 60% larger (insulin; P < 0.05), respectively, than with the reference drink. The whey drink was accompanied by an 80% greater GIP response (P < 0.05), whereas the drinks containing free amino acids did not significantly affect GIP secretion. Conclusion: A mixture of leucine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, and threonine resulted in glycemic and insulinemic responses closely mimicking those seen after whey ingestion in the absence of an additional effect of GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
hyperinsulinemia, amino, serum insulin, blood glucose, milk, acids, whey, incretin hormones
in
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
volume
85
issue
4
pages
996 - 1004
publisher
American Society for Clinical Nutrition
external identifiers
  • wos:000245661700012
  • scopus:34147133191
ISSN
1938-3207
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
403be251-a096-4ff9-a07b-8eb3694aed58 (old id 666196)
alternative location
http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/85/4/996
date added to LUP
2007-12-17 15:50:56
date last changed
2017-11-05 04:36:41
@article{403be251-a096-4ff9-a07b-8eb3694aed58,
  abstract     = {Background: Milk protein, in particular the whey fraction, has been shown to display insulinotrophic properties in healthy persons and persons with type 2 diabetes. In parallel to the hyperinsulinemia, a pronounced postprandial rise of certain amino acids and of glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) was observed in plasma. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine to what extent the insulinotrophic properties of whey could be simulated by specific amino acid mixtures. Design: Twelve healthy volunteers were served drinks consisting of pure glucose (reference drink) or glucose supplemented with free amino acids or whey proteins (test drinks). Results: A test drink with the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine resulted in significantly higher insulin responses than did the glucose reference. A drink containing glucose and leucine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, and threonine mimicked the glycemic and insulinemic responses seen after whey ingestion. With consumption of this drink, the glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 44% smaller (P &lt; 0.05) and the insulin AUC was 31% larger (NS) than with consumption of the reference drink. With consumption of the whey drink, the AUCs were 56% smaller (glucose; P &lt; 0.05) and 60% larger (insulin; P &lt; 0.05), respectively, than with the reference drink. The whey drink was accompanied by an 80% greater GIP response (P &lt; 0.05), whereas the drinks containing free amino acids did not significantly affect GIP secretion. Conclusion: A mixture of leucine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, and threonine resulted in glycemic and insulinemic responses closely mimicking those seen after whey ingestion in the absence of an additional effect of GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Mikael and Holst, Jens J. and Björck, Inger},
  issn         = {1938-3207},
  keyword      = {hyperinsulinemia,amino,serum insulin,blood glucose,milk,acids,whey,incretin hormones},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {996--1004},
  publisher    = {American Society for Clinical Nutrition},
  series       = {American Journal of Clinical Nutrition},
  title        = {Metabolic effects of amino acid mixtures and whey protein in healthy subjects: studies using glucose-equivalent drinks},
  volume       = {85},
  year         = {2007},
}