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Effects of indigestible carbohydrates in barley on glucose metabolism, appetite and voluntary food intake over 16 h in healthy adults

Johansson, Elin LU ; Nilsson, Anne LU ; Östman, Elin LU and Björck, Inger LU (2013) In Nutrition Journal 12.
Abstract
Background: Recent knowledge in animals suggests that gut microbial metabolism may affect host metabolism, including appetite regulating hormones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effects of a whole grain barley kernel product, rich in intrinsic indigestible carbohydrates (dietary fibre and resistant starch), on markers of metabolism and appetite regulation in healthy subjects. Methods: Boiled barley kernels (BK) or white wheat bread (WWB; reference) were provided as late evening meals to 19 young adults in random order using a cross-over design. During subsequent ad libitum standardized breakfast and lunch meals (10.5-16 h), blood was collected for analysis of glucose, plasma insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin,... (More)
Background: Recent knowledge in animals suggests that gut microbial metabolism may affect host metabolism, including appetite regulating hormones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effects of a whole grain barley kernel product, rich in intrinsic indigestible carbohydrates (dietary fibre and resistant starch), on markers of metabolism and appetite regulation in healthy subjects. Methods: Boiled barley kernels (BK) or white wheat bread (WWB; reference) were provided as late evening meals to 19 young adults in random order using a cross-over design. During subsequent ad libitum standardized breakfast and lunch meals (10.5-16 h), blood was collected for analysis of glucose, plasma insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum free fatty acids (FFA) and interleukin (IL)-6. In addition, appetite sensations, voluntary energy intake and breath H-2 were determined. Results: BK as evening meal increased plasma GLP-1 at fasting (P < 0.05) and during the experimental day (P < 0.01) compared with WWB. In addition the BK evening meal decreased fasting serum FFA (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease fasting serum IL-6 (P = 0.06). At lunch, preceded by BK evening meal, voluntary energy intake was decreased (P < 0.05) when compared to WWB evening meal. The BK evening meal decreased incremental blood glucose area (P < 0.01), promoted higher breath H2 (P < 0.001), maintained adiponectin concentrations (P < 0.05) and reduced perceived hunger (P < 0.05) during 10.5-16 h after the meal. Conclusions: The results indicate that the BK evening meal, facilitate glucose regulation, increase the release of GLP-1, reduce subsequent energy intake while at the same time decreasing hunger over 2 subsequent meals, and reduce fasting FFA the subsequent morning, possibly mediated through gut microbial fermentation of the indigestible carbohydrates. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Barley, Dietary fibre, Glucose tolerance, Incretins, GLP-1, Energy, intake, Appetite, Colonic fermentation, Metabolic syndrome, Inflammation
in
Nutrition Journal
volume
12
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • wos:000318429300002
  • scopus:84875951942
ISSN
1475-2891
DOI
10.1186/1475-2891-12-46
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e865920e-8e07-4949-9005-376576384b9f (old id 3821588)
date added to LUP
2013-06-25 11:28:01
date last changed
2019-10-23 02:44:32
@article{e865920e-8e07-4949-9005-376576384b9f,
  abstract     = {Background: Recent knowledge in animals suggests that gut microbial metabolism may affect host metabolism, including appetite regulating hormones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effects of a whole grain barley kernel product, rich in intrinsic indigestible carbohydrates (dietary fibre and resistant starch), on markers of metabolism and appetite regulation in healthy subjects. Methods: Boiled barley kernels (BK) or white wheat bread (WWB; reference) were provided as late evening meals to 19 young adults in random order using a cross-over design. During subsequent ad libitum standardized breakfast and lunch meals (10.5-16 h), blood was collected for analysis of glucose, plasma insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum free fatty acids (FFA) and interleukin (IL)-6. In addition, appetite sensations, voluntary energy intake and breath H-2 were determined. Results: BK as evening meal increased plasma GLP-1 at fasting (P &lt; 0.05) and during the experimental day (P &lt; 0.01) compared with WWB. In addition the BK evening meal decreased fasting serum FFA (P &lt; 0.05) and tended to decrease fasting serum IL-6 (P = 0.06). At lunch, preceded by BK evening meal, voluntary energy intake was decreased (P &lt; 0.05) when compared to WWB evening meal. The BK evening meal decreased incremental blood glucose area (P &lt; 0.01), promoted higher breath H2 (P &lt; 0.001), maintained adiponectin concentrations (P &lt; 0.05) and reduced perceived hunger (P &lt; 0.05) during 10.5-16 h after the meal. Conclusions: The results indicate that the BK evening meal, facilitate glucose regulation, increase the release of GLP-1, reduce subsequent energy intake while at the same time decreasing hunger over 2 subsequent meals, and reduce fasting FFA the subsequent morning, possibly mediated through gut microbial fermentation of the indigestible carbohydrates.},
  articleno    = {46},
  author       = {Johansson, Elin and Nilsson, Anne and Östman, Elin and Björck, Inger},
  issn         = {1475-2891},
  keyword      = {Barley,Dietary fibre,Glucose tolerance,Incretins,GLP-1,Energy,intake,Appetite,Colonic fermentation,Metabolic syndrome,Inflammation},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {Nutrition Journal},
  title        = {Effects of indigestible carbohydrates in barley on glucose metabolism, appetite and voluntary food intake over 16 h in healthy adults},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-46},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2013},
}