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Impact of rye-based evening meals on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk factors : A randomized controlled study in healthy middle-aged subjects

Sandberg, Jonna C. LU ; Björck, Inger M.E. LU and Nilsson, Anne C. LU (2018) In Nutrition Journal 17(1).
Abstract

Background: Whole grain (WG) intake is associated with reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term intervention with WG rye on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk markers in middle-aged test subjects. Method: Rye-based breads were provided to 38 healthy test subjects (aged 52-70y) during three consecutive days in a crossover study design, using white wheat flour bread (WWB) as a reference. The rye-based bread consisted of a WG rye kernel/flour mixture (1:1 ratio) supplemented with resistant starch type 2 (RS2) (RB + RS2). The last bread portion was... (More)

Background: Whole grain (WG) intake is associated with reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term intervention with WG rye on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk markers in middle-aged test subjects. Method: Rye-based breads were provided to 38 healthy test subjects (aged 52-70y) during three consecutive days in a crossover study design, using white wheat flour bread (WWB) as a reference. The rye-based bread consisted of a WG rye kernel/flour mixture (1:1 ratio) supplemented with resistant starch type 2 (RS2) (RB + RS2). The last bread portion was ingested at 2100 h, and cognitive function, mood and cardiometabolic risk markers were determined the following morning, 11 - 14 h post intake. Results: In comparison to WWB, the RB + RS2 product increased ratings of mood parameters (valance, P < 0.001; activation P < 0.05). No differences were seen in the cognitive tests depending on intervention (P > 0.05). RB + RS2 increased insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05), fasting levels of gut hormones (PYY, P < 0.05; GLP-2, P < 0.01) and fasting concentrations of plasma acetate, butyrate and total SCFA (P < 0.001). In contrast, fasting levels of IL - 1β were decreased (P < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity was positively correlated with working memory test performance (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study display novel findings regarding effects of WG rye products on mood, and glucose and appetite regulation in middle-aged subjects, indicating anti-diabetic properties of WG rye. The beneficial effects are suggested to be mediated through gut fermentation of dietary fiber in the RB + RS2 product. Trial registration: The study was retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, register number NCT03275948. Registered September 8 2017.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Cognition, Dietary fiber, Dietary prevention, Glucose regulation, Gut fermentation, Gut hormones, Mood, Obesity, Type 2 diabetes, Whole grain rye
in
Nutrition Journal
volume
17
issue
1
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • scopus:85056260531
ISSN
1475-2891
DOI
10.1186/s12937-018-0412-4
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
1dce2c35-965f-4dc7-aadc-7848a0806c62
date added to LUP
2018-11-22 09:52:08
date last changed
2019-02-20 11:37:07
@article{1dce2c35-965f-4dc7-aadc-7848a0806c62,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Whole grain (WG) intake is associated with reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term intervention with WG rye on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk markers in middle-aged test subjects. Method: Rye-based breads were provided to 38 healthy test subjects (aged 52-70y) during three consecutive days in a crossover study design, using white wheat flour bread (WWB) as a reference. The rye-based bread consisted of a WG rye kernel/flour mixture (1:1 ratio) supplemented with resistant starch type 2 (RS2) (RB + RS2). The last bread portion was ingested at 2100 h, and cognitive function, mood and cardiometabolic risk markers were determined the following morning, 11 - 14 h post intake. Results: In comparison to WWB, the RB + RS2 product increased ratings of mood parameters (valance, P &lt; 0.001; activation P &lt; 0.05). No differences were seen in the cognitive tests depending on intervention (P &gt; 0.05). RB + RS2 increased insulin sensitivity (P &lt; 0.05), fasting levels of gut hormones (PYY, P &lt; 0.05; GLP-2, P &lt; 0.01) and fasting concentrations of plasma acetate, butyrate and total SCFA (P &lt; 0.001). In contrast, fasting levels of IL - 1β were decreased (P &lt; 0.05). Insulin sensitivity was positively correlated with working memory test performance (P &lt; 0.05). Conclusions: This study display novel findings regarding effects of WG rye products on mood, and glucose and appetite regulation in middle-aged subjects, indicating anti-diabetic properties of WG rye. The beneficial effects are suggested to be mediated through gut fermentation of dietary fiber in the RB + RS2 product. Trial registration: The study was retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, register number NCT03275948. Registered September 8 2017.</p>},
  articleno    = {102},
  author       = {Sandberg, Jonna C. and Björck, Inger M.E. and Nilsson, Anne C.},
  issn         = {1475-2891},
  keyword      = {Cognition,Dietary fiber,Dietary prevention,Glucose regulation,Gut fermentation,Gut hormones,Mood,Obesity,Type 2 diabetes,Whole grain rye},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {11},
  number       = {1},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {Nutrition Journal},
  title        = {Impact of rye-based evening meals on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk factors : A randomized controlled study in healthy middle-aged subjects},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0412-4},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2018},
}