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Endosperm and whole grain rye breads are characterized by low post-prandial insulin response and a beneficial blood glucose profile

Rosén, Liza LU ; Silva, Lorena O. Blanco; Axling, Ulrika LU ; Holm, Cecilia LU ; Östman, Elin LU and Björck, Inger LU (2009) In Nutrition Journal 8:42.
Abstract
Background: Rye products have previously been shown to induce comparatively low post-prandial insulin responses; irrespectively of their glycaemic indices (GI). However, the mechanism behind this lowered insulin demand remains unknown. An improved insulin economy might contribute to the benefits seen in epidemiological studies with whole grain diets on metabolic risk factors and weight regulation. The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism for a reduced post-prandial insulin demand with rye products. Methods: 12 healthy subjects were given flour based rye products made from endosperm, whole grain or bran, produced with different methods (baking, simulated sour-dough baking and boiling) as breakfasts in random order in a... (More)
Background: Rye products have previously been shown to induce comparatively low post-prandial insulin responses; irrespectively of their glycaemic indices (GI). However, the mechanism behind this lowered insulin demand remains unknown. An improved insulin economy might contribute to the benefits seen in epidemiological studies with whole grain diets on metabolic risk factors and weight regulation. The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism for a reduced post-prandial insulin demand with rye products. Methods: 12 healthy subjects were given flour based rye products made from endosperm, whole grain or bran, produced with different methods (baking, simulated sour-dough baking and boiling) as breakfasts in random order in a cross-over design. White wheat bread (WWB) was used as a reference. Blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma ghrelin and subjective satiety were measured during 180 minutes. To evaluate the course of post-meal glycaemia, a measure of the glycaemic profile (GP) was introduced defined as the duration for the incremental post-prandial blood glucose response divided with the blood glucose incremental peak (min/mM). Results: The study shows that whole grain rye breads and endosperm rye products induced significantly (p < 0.05) lower insulinaemic indices (II's) than WWB. Rye bran bread (RBB) produced significantly higher II compared with all the other rye products. Furthermore, the acute insulin response showed better correlations with the GP than with the GI of the products. The endosperm rye bread and the whole grain rye bread with lactic acid induced a significantly higher GP than RBB, WWB, white wheat-and whole grain rye porridge, respectively. A low insulin incremental peak was associated with less severe late post-prandial hypoglycaemia (r = 0.38, p < 0.001), and hypoglycaemia was negatively correlated to subjective satiety at 180 min (r = -0.28, p < 0.05). A low insulin incremental peak was also associated with a milder recovery of plasma ghrelin in the late post-prandial phase (180 min, r = 0.34, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our study shows that endosperm and wholegrain rye products induce low acute insulinaemic responses and improved glycaemic profiles. The results also suggest that the rye products possess beneficial appetite regulating properties. Further studies are needed to identify the unknown property or bioactive component(s) responsible for these beneficial metabolic features of rye. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Rye type 2 diabetes insulin blood glucose
in
Nutrition Journal
volume
8:42
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • wos:000270974800001
  • scopus:70350348684
ISSN
1475-2891
DOI
10.1186/1475-2891-8-42
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
bc82dbb9-7cab-499e-b4b8-5f8dc09eebe5 (old id 1505985)
date added to LUP
2009-11-23 16:42:25
date last changed
2017-12-10 04:17:54
@article{bc82dbb9-7cab-499e-b4b8-5f8dc09eebe5,
  abstract     = {Background: Rye products have previously been shown to induce comparatively low post-prandial insulin responses; irrespectively of their glycaemic indices (GI). However, the mechanism behind this lowered insulin demand remains unknown. An improved insulin economy might contribute to the benefits seen in epidemiological studies with whole grain diets on metabolic risk factors and weight regulation. The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism for a reduced post-prandial insulin demand with rye products. Methods: 12 healthy subjects were given flour based rye products made from endosperm, whole grain or bran, produced with different methods (baking, simulated sour-dough baking and boiling) as breakfasts in random order in a cross-over design. White wheat bread (WWB) was used as a reference. Blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma ghrelin and subjective satiety were measured during 180 minutes. To evaluate the course of post-meal glycaemia, a measure of the glycaemic profile (GP) was introduced defined as the duration for the incremental post-prandial blood glucose response divided with the blood glucose incremental peak (min/mM). Results: The study shows that whole grain rye breads and endosperm rye products induced significantly (p &lt; 0.05) lower insulinaemic indices (II's) than WWB. Rye bran bread (RBB) produced significantly higher II compared with all the other rye products. Furthermore, the acute insulin response showed better correlations with the GP than with the GI of the products. The endosperm rye bread and the whole grain rye bread with lactic acid induced a significantly higher GP than RBB, WWB, white wheat-and whole grain rye porridge, respectively. A low insulin incremental peak was associated with less severe late post-prandial hypoglycaemia (r = 0.38, p &lt; 0.001), and hypoglycaemia was negatively correlated to subjective satiety at 180 min (r = -0.28, p &lt; 0.05). A low insulin incremental peak was also associated with a milder recovery of plasma ghrelin in the late post-prandial phase (180 min, r = 0.34, p &lt; 0.01). Conclusion: Our study shows that endosperm and wholegrain rye products induce low acute insulinaemic responses and improved glycaemic profiles. The results also suggest that the rye products possess beneficial appetite regulating properties. Further studies are needed to identify the unknown property or bioactive component(s) responsible for these beneficial metabolic features of rye.},
  author       = {Rosén, Liza and Silva, Lorena O. Blanco and Axling, Ulrika and Holm, Cecilia and Östman, Elin and Björck, Inger},
  issn         = {1475-2891},
  keyword      = {Rye type 2 diabetes insulin blood glucose},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {Nutrition Journal},
  title        = {Endosperm and whole grain rye breads are characterized by low post-prandial insulin response and a beneficial blood glucose profile},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-8-42},
  volume       = {8:42},
  year         = {2009},
}