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Inconsistency between glycemic and insulinemic responses to regular and fermented milk products

Östman, Elin LU ; Elmståhl, Helena LU and Björck, Inger LU (2001) In American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74(1). p.96-100
Abstract
Background: Foods with a low glycemic index are increasingly being acknowledged as beneficial in relation to the insulin resistance syndrome. Certain organic acids can lower the glycemic index of bread products. However, the possible effect of acids in fermented milk products on the glycemic index and on insulinemic characteristics has not been addressed. The metabolic effects of fermented milk or pickled products used as additives to mixed meals have also not been addressed.



Objectives: One objective was to characterize the glycemic and insulinemic responses after intake of regular or fermented milk products (study 1). In addition, the acute metabolic effect of fermented milk (yogurt) and pickled cucumber as... (More)
Background: Foods with a low glycemic index are increasingly being acknowledged as beneficial in relation to the insulin resistance syndrome. Certain organic acids can lower the glycemic index of bread products. However, the possible effect of acids in fermented milk products on the glycemic index and on insulinemic characteristics has not been addressed. The metabolic effects of fermented milk or pickled products used as additives to mixed meals have also not been addressed.



Objectives: One objective was to characterize the glycemic and insulinemic responses after intake of regular or fermented milk products (study 1). In addition, the acute metabolic effect of fermented milk (yogurt) and pickled cucumber as supplements to a traditional breakfast based on a high–glycemic index bread was evaluated (study 2).



Design: Ten healthy volunteers were served different breakfast meals after an overnight fast. Capillary blood samples were collected before and during 2 (study 1) or 3 (study 2) h after the meal. White-wheat bread was used as a reference meal in both studies.



Results: The lactic acid in the fermented milk products did not lower the glycemic and insulinemic indexes. Despite low glycemic indexes of 15–30, all of the milk products produced high insulinemic indexes of 90–98, which were not significantly different from the insulinemic index of the reference bread. Addition of fermented milk (yogurt) and pickled cucumber to a breakfast with a high–glycemic index bread significantly lowered postprandial glycemia and insulinemia compared with the reference meal. In contrast, addition of regular milk and fresh cucumber had no favorable effect on the metabolic responses.



Conclusions: Milk products appear insulinotropic as judged from 3-fold to 6-fold higher insulinemic indexes than expected from the corresponding glycemic indexes. The presence of organic acids may counteract the insulinotropic effect of milk in mixed meals. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
lactic acid, fermentation, organic acids, healthy humans, milk, Glycemic index, insulinemic index, breakfast, metabolic syndrome, carbohydrates
in
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
volume
74
issue
1
pages
96 - 100
publisher
American Society for Clinical Nutrition
external identifiers
  • scopus:0034978502
ISSN
1938-3207
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
a768d40c-fa63-445a-92e2-7392313e8296 (old id 830316)
alternative location
http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/74/1/96
date added to LUP
2008-01-07 12:28:22
date last changed
2018-08-19 03:59:49
@article{a768d40c-fa63-445a-92e2-7392313e8296,
  abstract     = {Background: Foods with a low glycemic index are increasingly being acknowledged as beneficial in relation to the insulin resistance syndrome. Certain organic acids can lower the glycemic index of bread products. However, the possible effect of acids in fermented milk products on the glycemic index and on insulinemic characteristics has not been addressed. The metabolic effects of fermented milk or pickled products used as additives to mixed meals have also not been addressed. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
Objectives: One objective was to characterize the glycemic and insulinemic responses after intake of regular or fermented milk products (study 1). In addition, the acute metabolic effect of fermented milk (yogurt) and pickled cucumber as supplements to a traditional breakfast based on a high–glycemic index bread was evaluated (study 2). <br/><br>
<br/><br>
Design: Ten healthy volunteers were served different breakfast meals after an overnight fast. Capillary blood samples were collected before and during 2 (study 1) or 3 (study 2) h after the meal. White-wheat bread was used as a reference meal in both studies. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
Results: The lactic acid in the fermented milk products did not lower the glycemic and insulinemic indexes. Despite low glycemic indexes of 15–30, all of the milk products produced high insulinemic indexes of 90–98, which were not significantly different from the insulinemic index of the reference bread. Addition of fermented milk (yogurt) and pickled cucumber to a breakfast with a high–glycemic index bread significantly lowered postprandial glycemia and insulinemia compared with the reference meal. In contrast, addition of regular milk and fresh cucumber had no favorable effect on the metabolic responses. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
Conclusions: Milk products appear insulinotropic as judged from 3-fold to 6-fold higher insulinemic indexes than expected from the corresponding glycemic indexes. The presence of organic acids may counteract the insulinotropic effect of milk in mixed meals.},
  author       = {Östman, Elin and Elmståhl, Helena and Björck, Inger},
  issn         = {1938-3207},
  keyword      = {lactic acid,fermentation,organic acids,healthy humans,milk,Glycemic index,insulinemic index,breakfast,metabolic syndrome,carbohydrates},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {96--100},
  publisher    = {American Society for Clinical Nutrition},
  series       = {American Journal of Clinical Nutrition},
  title        = {Inconsistency between glycemic and insulinemic responses to regular and fermented milk products},
  volume       = {74},
  year         = {2001},
}