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Fermentation of pseudocereals quinoa, canihua, and amaranth to improve mineral accessibility through degradation of phytate

Castro-Alba, Vanesa ; Lazarte, Claudia E. LU ; Perez-Rea, Daysi ; Carlsson, Nils Gunnar ; Almgren, Annette ; Bergenståhl, Björn LU and Granfeldt, Yvonne LU (2019) In Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 99(11). p.5239-5248
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pseudocereals are nutrient-rich grains with high mineral content but also phytate content. Phytate is a mineral absorption inhibitor. The study's aim was to evaluate phytate degradation during spontaneous fermentation and during Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® fermentation of quinoa, canihua, and amaranth grains and flours. It also aimed to evaluate the accessibility of iron, zinc, and calcium and to estimate their bioavailability before and after the fermentation of flours with starter culture. Lactic acid, pH, phytate, and mineral content were analyzed during fermentation. RESULTS: Higher phytate degradation was found during the fermentation of flours (64–93%) than during that of grains (12–51%). Results suggest that phytate... (More)

BACKGROUND: Pseudocereals are nutrient-rich grains with high mineral content but also phytate content. Phytate is a mineral absorption inhibitor. The study's aim was to evaluate phytate degradation during spontaneous fermentation and during Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® fermentation of quinoa, canihua, and amaranth grains and flours. It also aimed to evaluate the accessibility of iron, zinc, and calcium and to estimate their bioavailability before and after the fermentation of flours with starter culture. Lactic acid, pH, phytate, and mineral content were analyzed during fermentation. RESULTS: Higher phytate degradation was found during the fermentation of flours (64–93%) than during that of grains (12–51%). Results suggest that phytate degradation was mainly due to endogenous phytase activity in different pseudocereals rather than the phytase produced by added microorganisms. The addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® resulted in a higher level of lactic acid (76.8–82.4 g kg−1 DM) during fermentation, and a relatively quicker reduction in pH to 4 than in spontaneous fermentation. Mineral accessibility was increased (1.7–4.6-fold) and phytate : mineral molar ratios were reduced (1.5–4.2-fold) in agreement with phytate degradation (1.8–4.2-fold) in fermented flours. The reduced molar ratios were still above the threshold value for the improved estimated mineral bioavailability of mainly iron. CONCLUSION: Fermentation proved to be effective for degrading phytate in pseudocereal flours, but less so in grains. Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® improved mineral accessibility and estimated bioavailability in flours.

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author
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organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
estimated bioavailability, lactic acid fermentation, mineral accessibility, phytate, pseudocereals
in
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
volume
99
issue
11
pages
5239 - 5248
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • pmid:31062366
  • scopus:85067066431
ISSN
0022-5142
DOI
10.1002/jsfa.9793
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
1132b08f-b465-4f3d-aef2-f8804314e6d1
date added to LUP
2019-07-03 09:09:16
date last changed
2020-10-20 03:15:25
@article{1132b08f-b465-4f3d-aef2-f8804314e6d1,
  abstract     = {<p>BACKGROUND: Pseudocereals are nutrient-rich grains with high mineral content but also phytate content. Phytate is a mineral absorption inhibitor. The study's aim was to evaluate phytate degradation during spontaneous fermentation and during Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® fermentation of quinoa, canihua, and amaranth grains and flours. It also aimed to evaluate the accessibility of iron, zinc, and calcium and to estimate their bioavailability before and after the fermentation of flours with starter culture. Lactic acid, pH, phytate, and mineral content were analyzed during fermentation. RESULTS: Higher phytate degradation was found during the fermentation of flours (64–93%) than during that of grains (12–51%). Results suggest that phytate degradation was mainly due to endogenous phytase activity in different pseudocereals rather than the phytase produced by added microorganisms. The addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® resulted in a higher level of lactic acid (76.8–82.4 g kg<sup>−1</sup> DM) during fermentation, and a relatively quicker reduction in pH to 4 than in spontaneous fermentation. Mineral accessibility was increased (1.7–4.6-fold) and phytate : mineral molar ratios were reduced (1.5–4.2-fold) in agreement with phytate degradation (1.8–4.2-fold) in fermented flours. The reduced molar ratios were still above the threshold value for the improved estimated mineral bioavailability of mainly iron. CONCLUSION: Fermentation proved to be effective for degrading phytate in pseudocereal flours, but less so in grains. Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® improved mineral accessibility and estimated bioavailability in flours.</p>},
  author       = {Castro-Alba, Vanesa and Lazarte, Claudia E. and Perez-Rea, Daysi and Carlsson, Nils Gunnar and Almgren, Annette and Bergenståhl, Björn and Granfeldt, Yvonne},
  issn         = {0022-5142},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {5239--5248},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture},
  title        = {Fermentation of pseudocereals quinoa, canihua, and amaranth to improve mineral accessibility through degradation of phytate},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9793},
  doi          = {10.1002/jsfa.9793},
  volume       = {99},
  year         = {2019},
}